Geological Behavior (GBR)

APPLICATION OF GSI SYSTEM FOR SLOPE STABILITY STUDIES ON SELECTED SLOPES OF THE CROCKER FORMATION IN KOTA KINABALU AREA, SABAH

APPLICATION OF GSI SYSTEM FOR SLOPE STABILITY STUDIES ON SELECTED SLOPES OF THE CROCKER FORMATION IN KOTA KINABALU AREA, SABAH

ABSTRACT

 

APPLICATION OF GSI SYSTEM FOR SLOPE STABILITY STUDIES ON SELECTED
SLOPES OF THE CROCKER FORMATION IN KOTA KINABALU AREA, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Lee Kiun You & Ismail Abd. Rahim

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.10.12

This study was conducted on two selected slopes in Kota Kinabalu area of Sabah. The area is underlain by Crocker Formation which consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale layers. The objectives of this study are to determine the Geological Strength Index (GSI) rating, rock mass properties and slope stability for the selected slopes. Engineering geological mapping and discontinuity survey were conducted to obtain quantitative description of discontinuities as well as rock sampling based on grain sizes. GSI rating and disturbance factor was obtained from discontinuity survey and field observation on the slope face, respectively. Residual GSI rating was determined using empirical method. Laboratory study was done to determine the Uniaxial Compressive Strength via point load test and unit weight by dry density test along with the intact rock constant. Rock mass properties such as cohesion, friction angle, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and residual strength were determined by applying GSI system into the Hoek-Brown criterion. Kinematic analysis and finite element analysis were conducted to identify localised mode of failure and the safety factor of the selected slopes. Prescriptive measures were used to determine the rock cut slope designs. GSI rating for both slopes were obtained with both slopes can be considered as stable according to kinematic analysis and finite element analysis. Prescriptive measures for slope protection are needed to prevent water pressure build up and future failure.
Pages 10-12
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENTS AROUND NUKAKATAN VALLEY, TAMBUNAN, SABAH

ABSTRACT

 

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENTS AROUND NUKAKATAN VALLEY, TAMBUNAN, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Hennie Fitria Wulandary Soehady Erfen, Junaidi Asis, Muhammad Abdullah, Baba Musta, Sanudin Tahir, Hazerina Pungut & Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.13.15

The objective of this paper is to assess the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in sediments from Nukakatan Valley, Tambunan, Sabah. In this study 13 soil samples were collected from different sampling station of river sediments and soil profiles. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) analysis. The result of analysis shows that highest concentration was copper with the average of 21.77 ppm, and followed by nickel with concentration level was 15.94 ppm. The concentration of chromium was 15.15 ppm, arsenic was 11.91 ppm and lead was 10.39 ppm. The soils samples are identified as non-polluted due to the low concentration of chromium, copper, nickel and lead but heavily polluted with arsenic when measured using Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent.
Pages 13-15
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Comparison of Cohesion (c’), and Angle of Internal Friction (Ф’) Distribution in Highland Area of Kundasang by using Ordinary Kriging and Simple Kriging.

ABSTRACT

Comparison of Cohesion (c’), and Angle of Internal Friction (Ф’) Distribution in Highland Area of Kundasang by using Ordinary Kriging and Simple Kriging.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mohd. Radzif. Taharin, Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.16.18

The objective of the research is to determine the distribution of cohesion (c’), and angle of internal friction (Ф’) values for the highland area of Kundasang, Sabah by using kriging. A set of data from two adjacent site in Kundasang were collected from the site investigation report. There are three main stages in determining these parameters. The first stage is to use ordinary kriging methods to determine the modelling for these parameters. The second stage is to compare the results from ordinary kriging methods to simple kriging methods. The third stage is to produce the mapping for these parameters in the site, which could be used for slope stability and foundation design.
Pages 16-18
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: GOH THIAN LAI , AINUL MARDHIYAH MOHD RAZIB,NUR AMANINA MAZLAN, ABDUL GHANI RAFEK, AILIE SOFYIANA SERASA, NORBERT SIMON, NORAINI SURIP, LEE KHAI ERN4AND TUAN RUSLI MOHAMED

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.22.26

The uniqueness of karsttopography in Kinta Valley lies with the spectacular shape of the steep-sided limestone towers. However, theinstability ofthese hillslopes may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to investigate the failure modes of 9 slopes in the vicinity ofnorthernKinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. There were two types of failure modes identified in the study area,which are planar and wedge failures. Planar failures were identified on slope GL3of Gunung Lang and slope GR3of Gunung Rapat with the dip direction and dip angle of 280⁰/79⁰ and 004⁰/ 64⁰ respectively. Two wedge failures were identified on slope QXL1of Qing Xing Ling, Taman Saikat with dip direction and dip angle of 252⁰/82⁰ and 302⁰/74⁰ respectively. A wedge failure was identified on slope GL3 for Gunung Lang, slope GR1, slope GR3 for Gunung Rapat and slope QXL2 for Qing Xing Ling,Taman Saikat. The dip direction and dip angle for the respective wedges failure were 345⁰/65⁰, 036⁰/ 49⁰, 006⁰/ 64⁰ and 025⁰/60⁰. No failure was identified on slope GL1, and slope GL2,forGunung Lang and slope GR2, and slope GR4forGunungRapat.
Pages 22-26
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah: Preliminary Interpretation

ABSTRACT

Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah:Preliminary Interpretation.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Junaidi Asis, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Ahmad Ridhwan Rahim, Zainey Konjing, Razali Che Kob, H.D. Tjia

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.27.29

Small benthic foraminifera have been fully extracted from the mudstone of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah. The Kudat Formation comprise thick-bedded, quartzose to feldspathic, locally calcareous sandstone, an overall abundance of lignitic and carbonaceous layers, and the presence of red shales and detrital calcarenites. A total of 22 mudstone samples of Kudat Formation in difference localities have been collected for foraminifera analysis. All samples are processed according to standard micropaleontological method. Twenty-five species of small benthic foraminifera consisting of the agglutinated and hyaline group have identified. Almost all mudstone samples of Sikuati Member and Matunggong Member are consisting of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera assemblage indicative of bathyal to abyssal. K21 sample of Tajau member and K9 sample of Sikuati Member consist of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera together with reworked calcareous foraminifera. Foraminifera analysis shows that the Kudat Formation sediment was deposited in deep marine setting ranging from bathyal to neritic..
Pages 27-29
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Goh Thian Lai, Ainul Mardhiyah Mohd Razib, Nur Amanina Mazlan, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Ailie Sofyiana Serasa, Norbert Simon, Noraini Surip, Lee Khai Ern and Tuan Rusli Mohamed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.05.09

The uniqueness of the karst topography of Kinta Valley is the result of the spectacular shaped steep-sided limestone towers. The instability of these hillslopes however, may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. This paper presents the results of slope stability assessment by using kinematic analysis to investigate the possible failure modes of 7 slopes in Gua Naga Mas (GNM1, GNM2 and GNM3), Gua Kandu (GK1, GK2 and GK3) and Gua Tempurung (GT) located in the southern part of the Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. From the results of the slope stability assessment, it was determined that planar failure and wedge failure were the main failure modes. The GNM1 slope of Gua Naga Mas consist of four wedge failures and a planar failure with dip directions/dip angles of 005⁰/54⁰, 354⁰/59⁰, 124⁰/52⁰, 360⁰/50⁰ and 063⁰/70⁰ respectively. The GNM2 slope consists of a wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 021⁰/64⁰. Two wedge failures and a planar failure were identified on slope GNM3 with the respective dip directions/dip angles of 336⁰/49⁰, 301⁰/68⁰ and 270⁰/71⁰. The GK1 slope for Gua Kandu consists of wedge and planar failures with dip directions/dip angles of 231⁰/49⁰ and 217⁰/49⁰ respectively. The mode of failure at GK2 slope was identified as wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 154⁰/44⁰. No mode of failure was identified on slope of GK3. Slope GT of Gua Tempurung was identified to have two wedge failures with dip directions/dip angles of 011⁰/49⁰ and 321⁰/48⁰ respectively..
Pages 05-06
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee , Norbert Simon

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.01.04

This study focused on the discontinuity survey and mode of rock slope failure along the Bundu Tuhan to Kundasang road, approximately 84th km to 96th km from Kota Kinabalu city, Sabah. The area is underlain by the Trusmadi Formation (Palaeocene to Eocene age), the Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) and the Pinousuk Gravels (Upper Pleistocene to Holocene age). These rock units show numerous lineaments with complex structural styles developed during several regional Tertiary tectonic activities. The tectonic complexities reduced the physical and engineering properties of the rock masses and produced intensive displacements and discontinuities among the strata, resulting in high degree of weathering process and instability. The weathered materials are unstable and may cause sliding and falling induced by high pore pressure subjected by both shallow and deep hydrodynamic processes. In this study, a total of ten (10) selected critical rock slopes failure was studied. Kinematics slope stability analyses indicates that the variable potential of circular, planar, wedge and toppling failures modes as well as the combination of more than one mode of aforementioned failure. The rock properties of ten (10) rock samples indicated that the point load strength index ranges from 0.33 MPa to 0.52 MPa (moderately week) and the uniaxial compressive strength range from 7.81 MPa to 12.57 MPa (moderately week). Development planning has to consider the hazard and environmental management program. This engineering geological study may play a vital role in rock slope stability assessment to ensure the public safety.
Pages 01-04
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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TEMPORAL LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT USING LANDSLIDE DENSITY TECHNIQUE

ABSTRACT

TEMPORAL LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT USING LANDSLIDE DENSITY TECHNIQUE.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Norbert Simon, Rodeano Roslee, Goh ian Lai

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.10.13

In this study, a temporal landslide assessment was carried out in a landslide prone areaalong the Ranau-Tambunan road in Sabah, Malaysia. The assessment was based on landslides interpreted from 1978 and 1994 aerial photographs and also from fieldworks which were done in 2009 and 2011. A total of 148 landslides were recorded from those four years with 24, 47, 56 and 21 landslides respectively for the year 1978, 1994, 2009 and 2011. Based on these landslides, a landslide density map was produced for each year which consist of three classes; low (1 landslide/km2); moderate (2-3 landslides/km2); and high (≥ 4 landslides/km2). Based on the combination of landslides occurred throughout the assessment years, 22 sections of the road were indicated to have high landslide density. Intersection with high lineament density zone shows that 16 of the high landslide density areas are located inside within the high lineament density zone. From both of these maps, a landslide susceptibility map was generated. Landslide records acquired from aerial photographs captured in 2005 was use to validate the map. The validation result shows that 83% of the total landslides in 2005 are within the high susceptibility zone and this value indicates that the accuracy of the susceptibility map is acceptable. The high susceptibility zone in the study area can be categorized as ‘highly susceptible’ with moderate hazard based on the International guideline on susceptibility and hazard zonation. In terms of landslide density, it is expected that 5.4 landslides can be observed for every km2 in the high susceptibility zone. .
Pages 10-13
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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WAVE-DOMINATED SHORELINE DEPOSITS IN THE LATE MIOCENE SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE IN THE MIRI FORMATION NORTH SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

WAVE-DOMINATED SHORELINE DEPOSITS IN THE LATE MIOCENE SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE IN THE MIRI FORMATION NORTH SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)

Author: Muhd Nur Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Sanudin Hj. Tahir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.14.19

The research area is located in Miri region, north Sarawak. Observation was focused on selected outcrops along road cuts and beach. The distribution of outcrops is widely distributed at a few localities in Miri region such as Tanjong Lobang, Airport road, Hospital road and Oil Well road. Sedimentary sequences can be traced by facies variations as shoreline environment based on the sedimentary structures. Four facies were identified and characterised successfully in the study area based on their sedimentary structures, namely facies 1: planar cross stratified (PcS), facies 2: swaley cross stratified (ScS), facies 3: swaley-Hummocky cross stratified (SHcS), facies 4: Hummocky cross stratified (HcS) and heterollithic facies (He). Facies evaluation deduced that the sedimentation settings resulted as foreshore, upper shoreface, middle shoreface, lower shoreface and tidal (minor occurrence). Wave-dominated in the upward coarsening interval is unambiguous that representing by abundance of hummocky cross stratification and other storm deposits in the sandstone dominated portions, well-defined swaley cross stratified sandstone interval, and up to several meters thick sets of planar cross beds interval interpreted to have been formed by swash waves. Heterolithic units in this wave dominated sequences are as minor occurrence of tidal influence during fair weather .
Pages 14-19
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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FACIES AND SANDSTONE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KUDAT FORMATION, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

FACIES AND SANDSTONE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KUDAT FORMATION, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Sanudin Tahir, Kong Vui Siong, Baba Musta, Junaidi Asis

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.20.25

The Kudat Formation, formed the major rock unit of Kudat Peninsula in the northern tip of Borneo Island, is made up of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with fossiliferous limestone lenses. Lithostratigraphically, it is divided into Tajau Member and Sikuati Member. The Tajau Member differs from the Sikuati Member by the thicker coarsening upward sequence and the presence of limestone lenses. Field mapping and petrographic analysis were utilized to study the facies and sandstone characteristics. The formation as a potential reservoir is largely dependent on the original sandstone composition, which was influenced by deposition in a shallow marine setting and local sourcing activity. The succession of the sequence is composed of a major shoreface deposits during the late Early Miocene. The measured sections are predominantly composed of interbedded sandstone and mudstone usually show sedimentary structures which are indicative of wave and tidal processes, such as swaley, hummocky, trough and planar cross stratifications. The sequence grades up-section into facies packages of increasing tidal energy and terminate with the deposition within the upper regime shoreline settings. The selected Tajau sandstones in this study are texturally and mineralogically mature quartz arenites with good sorting. However, the presence of unstable lithic grains and feldspars during diagenetic processes contributed to the reduction of porosity, giving irregular porosity, due to deformation by compaction, and susceptibility to chemical alteration of labile minerals. Reservoir quality was also influenced by the subsequent diagenesis of the sandstones, which was driven by increase overburden pressure and could be culminated by increase temperature during the proceeding depth. Lithic fragments, feldspars and authigenic cements were altered to form diagenetic mineral suites, which tend to occlude porosity; however, dissolution and chemical reactions of some of these grains also enhanced secondary porosity development. Most observed porosity in the sandstone sequence is secondary, developed from dissolution of both carbonate cement and unstable framework grains. Mean porosity suggested a weak decreasing trend with depth of burial. However, detailed examination of several localities revealed that porosity development was strongly influenced by local factors. Thus, sandstones of the Kudat Formation are generally fair reservoir characteristics, due to the presence of unstable framework grains, early carbonate cementation and authigenic/diagenetic mineral suites.
Pages 20-25
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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