Geological Behavior (GBR)

AQUIFER VULNERABILITY STUDIES USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN NSUKKA EAST AND WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

AQUIFER VULNERABILITY STUDIES USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN NSUKKA EAST AND WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

AQUIFER VULNERABILITY STUDIES USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN NSUKKA EAST AND WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Eni, Oluchi C., Ossai, Ngozi M., Ibuot, Johnson C

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.38.47

This study utilized electrical resistivity survey methods using the Schlumberger configuration to investigate subsurface formations and assess groundwater vulnerability in the study area. The study employed vertical electrical sounding (VES) with Schlumberger electrode configuration in acquiring the data at ten locations across the study area. The result revealed five geoelectric layers with the fourth layer delineated as the aquifer layers. The values of resistivity and thickness were used in estimating the geohydraulic parameters (Dar-Zarrouk parameters, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, hydraulic resistance and formation factor) which help in evaluating the study area. The values of longitudinal conductance ranged from 0.002 to 0.046 mhos, transverse resistance ranged from 41836.86 to 6462359 Ωm2, porosity ranged from 7.298 to 19.538 %, formation factor ranged from 0.002 to 0.025, hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.018 to 0.266 m2/day and hydraulic resistance ranged from 70.601 to 3895 237. The longitudinal conductance revealed the study area as poorly conducted while the aquifer vulnerability index show low to moderate vulnerability.
Pages 38-47
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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SEISMIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COAL SEAM IN THE KASHMIR BASIN BY USING MULTI-ATTRIBUTE FUSION TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

SEISMIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COAL SEAM IN THE KASHMIR BASIN BY USING MULTI-ATTRIBUTE FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ehtisham Mehmood, Haishen Lu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.27.31

The increasing demand for efficient and sustainable coal extraction emphasizes the critical need for accurately characterizing coal seams. This study explores the utilization of multi-attribute seismic fusion technology to analyze the seismic response of coal seams in the Kashmir Basin. Through the application of a two-dimensional forward geological model incorporating coal layers and roadways, we extracted seismic attributes such as relative wave impedance, instantaneous amplitude, and frequency, aiming to assess their effectiveness in detecting anomalies caused by roadways within the coal seam. Our findings indicate that these attributes successfully capture variations in seismic response induced by roadways. However, individual attributes may face challenges in differentiation based on roadway fill material. To address this limitation, RGB multi-attribute fusion technology was employed. Compared to single attributes, the fused attribute offers a more comprehensive representation of geological features, enabling clearer visualization of tunnel boundaries and extraction of richer geological information. This methodology enhances the accuracy of seismic data interpretation and simplifies the delineation of complex geological structures within coal seams. This research underscores the potential of multi-attribute fusion technology in advancing coal seam characterization in the Kashmir Basin and beyond. The improved understanding of complex geological structures translates to optimized resource exploration strategies and more informed decision-making in the mining industry.
Pages 27-31
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF AREAS DEGRADED BY MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: CALL FOR ACTION

ABSTRACT

REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF AREAS DEGRADED BY MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: CALL FOR ACTION

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Innocent Mufungizi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.32.37

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) is a country with strong potential in mineral raw materials; therefore, it is qualified as a “Geological Scandal.” It is the world’s leading producer of cobalt, and in 2022 it will be among the five major copper producers in the world. Although the mining sector plays a major role in economic growth, the country does not fully benefit from these resources due to the uncontrolled exploitation of raw materials, fraud, mining smuggling, and the lack of means for local processing of minerals. natural resources. DR Congo was classified by the World Bank as one of the five poorest countries in the world in 2022, despite the potential it presents. Given the great importance of critical minerals in the energy transition, the demand for raw materials is increasingly high. The DR Congo receives more requests for mining titles for the exploitation of resources. Unfortunately, these resources are non-renewable, and their exploitation destroys the environment. New technologies based on spatial analysis and remote sensing applied in the mining sector are capable of monitoring operating activities to combat the anarchic exploitation of resources and also control the waste evacuated by mining companies during the mining phases of exploration and especially during the hydrometallurgical treatment of ores. Areas damaged by these activities can be remediated using new remediation engineering techniques and tools. Remote sensing would also be involved in the acquisition of data that is difficult to access based on gaps in environmental reports. For the application of these techniques, the Ministry of Mines of DR Congo will have to act through its technical services and other services of the Ministry of Scientific Research and Technological Development, such as the national remote sensing center, the national geological service, and the geographical institute of Congo.
Pages 32-37
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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THE SUCCESS OF SATELLITE GRAVIMETRY IN GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

ABSTRACT

THE SUCCESS OF SATELLITE GRAVIMETRY IN GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ahmad Alhassan, Okoro Ernest chidi, Mohammed Auwal Adamu, Salisu Tata, Muhammad Shettima Nur, Auwal Aliyu, Yusuf Abdulhameed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.23.26

Terrestrial measurements of gravity data are limited to only accessible areas. Areas that are not easily accessible due to lack of access route, security, cost etc. are found unfavorable for terrestrial measurements. These among others lead to the development of satellites to fill those gaps. Satellites have been used for data acquisition for years and have recorded a great success in numerous ways. This paper presents the principle of operation of such satellites. The successful geophysical researches carried out using satellite acquired gravity data from existing literature were also discussed. The researches applied the satellite gravity data for numerous applications notably ground water survey, hydrology, geothermal survey, Mineral and hydrocarbon explorations, lithological characterization (Edge/boundary detection, depth estimation), Modeling of magma chamber, volcanic subsurface survey, characterization of upper atmospheric density etc. Satellite gravity survey is found to be very essential and relatively more advantageous compared to terrestrial survey because the human effort in data acquisition is less, it has wider coverage in small time, access to places that cannot be accessed on ground. It is therefore recommended that the functions of the satellites should be further expanded using new innovations like machine learning and artificial intelligence in order to increase efficiency.
Pages 23-26
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BASEMENT ROCK FOR GROUNDWATER AND MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL USING VERY LOW FREQUENCY – ELECTROMAGNETIC (VLF-EM) TECHNIQUES AT SITE “G” AROUND IBADAN METROPOLIS, SOUTHWESTERN BASEMENT COMPLEX, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BASEMENT ROCK FOR GROUNDWATER AND MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL USING VERY LOW FREQUENCY – ELECTROMAGNETIC (VLF-EM) TECHNIQUES AT SITE “G” AROUND IBADAN METROPOLIS, SOUTHWESTERN BASEMENT COMPLEX, NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ibrahim Abdulbariu, Hassan Jubril Izge, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Jamal Osumanu, Habeeb Ayoola Ayinla, David Appiah and Ibrahim O. Ibrahim

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.13.22

The research area, site “G” is located in the city of Ibadan and is surrounded by the basement complex rock mainly migmatite-gneiss and been a hard rock, it is not alienated from the problem of water scarcity. In this region, water is usually encountered either in weathered zone or fractured basement which serve as a conduit for groundwater passage. It is also along this fracture that materials such as quartzo-feldsparthic minerals occur and tend to heal the fracture, hence the need for intensive geological and geophysical exploration to locate this important basement fracture. Very low frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) alongside with geological survey was adopted and conductivity data were acquired along fifteen VLF traverses utilizing very low frequency of about 15 KHz using ABEM WADI survey equipment. 13 profiles were in the east-west (E-W) direction which is the dip direction of the structural elements, while the 2 profiles were in north-south (N-S) direction to serve as a control. The acquired data were analyzed, filtered and displayed inform of profiles and Karous-Hjelt (K-H) filtered pseudo-section to show conductivity and resistivity in 2-D. The results reveal pocket of conductive zones which have been considered as fractures with different dimension and orientation. Most are single fractures, while some are closely spaced double fractures, some of which are connected to each other in depth. Also, some of these fractures contain water while some are dry, some are even suspected to be healed with quartzo-feldsparthic minerals and all of these depend on the conductivity / resistivity signature exhibited by the fractures. Therefore, it can be concluded that VLF has effectively characterise the basement into fractures that contain water, barren fracture and even fracture that contain quartzo-feldsparthic vein.
Pages 13-22
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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PETROGRAPHIC AND GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF NYIRAGONGO VOLCANIC FLOWS FROM THE 2002 AND 2021 ERUPTIONS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

ABSTRACT

PETROGRAPHIC AND GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF NYIRAGONGO VOLCANIC FLOWS FROM THE 2002 AND 2021 ERUPTIONS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Innocent Mufungizi, Ndjate Ohanga, Jean Kabulo, Roda Bongeli, Trésor Hubert, Ridi Diakondua, Ruben Loola, Jonathan Musitu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2024.01.12

Context: One of the volcanoes on the East African Rift’s Virunga chain is the Nyiragongo. It is recognized for its Hawaiian-style eruptive dynamism and is especially interesting for studies aimed at comprehending the dynamics of the East African Rift. Objectives: In order to close the geochemistry gap, comprehend the evolution of the Nyiragongo magmas over a 20-year period, and enhance our knowledge of the southern region of the Nyiragongo volcanic field, this paper examines the significance of comparative research on the petrography and geochemistry of Nyiragongo volcano flows from 2002 and 2021. Approaches: A field campaign was conducted using the Hammer Survey method to characterize available outcrops macroscopically. Samples were taken to identify unnoticed size and propose relative words. Four out of fifteen samples underwent microscopic examination. Results: The 2021 and 2002 Nyiragongo volcano eruptions have similar mineralogical compositions, dominated by nepheline phenocrysts. However, the 2021 lava has a porphyritic to microlithic texture, with undersaturated silica and enriched alkalis. Olivine microlith is present in the 2002 flow, but not in the 2021 lava. In conclusion, the persistence of dispersive features linked to the East African rift is demonstrated by the geochemical description of geotectonic locations. The alkaline series is geochemically suited to both flows.
Pages 01-12
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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PALEONTOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY, PALEOENVIRONMENT AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF SIXTY-THREE CAMPANIAN-NEOGENE TETHYAN BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENERA AND SPECIES OF ANAN B- SUBORDER LAGENINA

ABSTRACT

PALEONTOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY, PALEOENVIRONMENT AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF SIXTY-THREE CAMPANIAN-NEOGENE TETHYAN BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENERA AND SPECIES OF ANAN B- SUBORDER LAGENINA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Haidar Salim Anan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2023.53.58

This study represents the second part of the erected assemblage of benthic foraminiferal genera and species of Anan, which related to the Suborder Lagenina, after the first part which belongs to the taxa of the Suborders Textulariina and Miliolina (Anan, manuscript). In this study, seven new genera and sixty-three Lagenid benthic foraminiferal species were erected from thirteen localities from Northern Tethys (USA, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Spain, France Poland) and Southern Tethys (Tunisia, Egypt, UAE, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan). The six new Lagenid benthic foraminiferal genera and its species are: Leroyia (L. aegyptiaca L. maqfiensis, L. tunisica), Lenticuzonaria (L. hodae, L. misrensis), Lenticubella (L. polonica, L. kurkurensis, L. misrensis), Percultalina (P. misrensis, P. sinaensis), Vaginulinoides (V. fingeri), Vaginulinella (V. fingeri). The other Lagenid species of the other genera are presented. Two of the identified species are believed here to be new: Hemirobulina yehiai and Ramulina fatemae.
Pages 53-58
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ‘SHULA FIELD’, OFFSHORE NIGER DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

ABSTRACT

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ‘SHULA FIELD’, OFFSHORE NIGER DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Johnson Ajidahun, Oluwasanmi Ayodele Olabode, Michael Tomisin Asubiojo, Temitayo Daniel Johnson, Temitayo Olamide Ale, Kazeem Oladimeji
Olomo, Oluyemi Emmanuel Faseki, Odunayo Bolanle Agunloye

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2023.43.52

This study analyzed “Shula field” offshore Niger Delta basin for it hydrocarbon bearing capacity. Well logs and seismic data were used for the analysis. Well logs consisting of gamma ray, resistivity, neutron and density logs for five different wells were used. Gamma ray logs aided lithological identification, resistivity logs were used to delineate hydrocarbon bearing zones while a combination of neutron and density logs aided in distinguishing oil and gas zones. Three hydrocarbon bearing sands (reservoirs) of varying thickness designated as RES-AA, RES-BB and RES-CC were identified. Well log correlation of the five wells revealed lateral continuity of the sand units thinning out in northwestern direction of the study field. The range values of gross thickness (GT), net-to-gross (NTG), volume of shale (VSH), effective porosity (ΦEff), permeability (K), hydrocarbon saturation (Sh) and water saturation (SW) for RES-AA reservoir are 51-74ft, 0.88-98%, 0.10-11%, 24-28%, 174-734mD, 8-80%, and 20-92% respectively. RES-BB reservoir range values of (GT), (NTG), (VSH), (ΦEff), (K), (Sh) and (SW) are 47-65ft, 83-98%, 8-14%, 24-32%, 234-1880mD, 4-78%, and 22-96% respectively while the RES-CC reservoir range values of (GT), (NTG), (VSH), (ΦEff), (K), (Sh) and (SW) are 121-191ft, 82-96%, 8-11%, 23-31%, 125-1352mD, 9-88% and 12-91% respectively. Sixteen faults were identified and interpreted comprising of nine synthetic and seven antithetic faults. The time and depth structural maps show the subsurface structural geometry and possible hydrocarbon migration and trapping potential. The probable structure trapping hydrocarbon in the study field is anticlinal structure and four-way closure. The volumetric calculation revealed that reservoir RES-AA has 951 × 106 bbl, reservoir RES-BB has 1058 × 106 bbl and reservoir RES-CC has 1688 × 106 bbl of oil originally in place (OIIP). Generally, the petrophysical results and the volumetric calculation for the field confirm an economically viable investment potential except for reservoir RES-AA, wellbore ZY-005 with 8% Sh, reservoir RES-BB, wellbore ZY-003 and ZY-005 with 4% Sh, and 7% Sh respectively and reservoir RES-CC, wellbore ZY-005 with 9% Sh. Therefore, these four reservoir units may be screen out during production to reduce the rate of water cut thereby increasing the producing life of the field.
Pages 43-52
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER IN PART OF OBIO/AKPOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER IN PART OF OBIO/AKPOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Owabie, W. Highpriest, Amonieah, Jiriwari, Davies, O. Anthony

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2023.67.71

This research is aimed at carrying out geophysical survey for groundwater in parts of Obio/Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, using the Schlumberger electrode configuration of vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. The field data were obtained using ABEM terrameter SAS1000 which was applied on eight VES location, a maximum distance of 300m current electrode spacing was used in the eight vertical electrical sounding points. Data acquired were interpreted using IPIN2Win 2022 version and Surfer13 softwares. The results obtained showed a 4-layers type A curve for Rumuepirikom and Rumuolumini VES locations, 5-layers type A curve for Rumuosi VES location, 4 and 5-layers type H curve for Ozuoba and Eneka VES locations respectively, 5-layers type K curve for Egbelu VES location and 4-layers type HK curve for Rukpoku and Rumuola VES locations. The apparent resistivity values range from 29.3344 – 252898.2075Ωm for Egbelu, 22.6195 – 674.0601Ωm for Rukpoku, 1.0631 – 230.9071Ωm for Rumuepirikom, 29.5833 – 600.8296Ωm for Rumuosi, 32.9867 – 561.5283Ωm for Rumuola, 29.0597 – 458.4212Ωm for Ozuoba, 29.0597 – 134.0413Ωm for Rumuolumini and 71.2094 – 338.1611Ωm for Eneka VES locations, and shows that Rumuepirikom and Rumuolumini are the most groundwater potential zones, thus will yield sufficient groundwater to wells, while Egbelu and Rukpoku are the least groundwater potential zones, thus will not yield sufficient groundwater to wells. The knowledge of this study can be applied in groundwater resources management, hydrological studies and regional town planning programs.
Pages 67-71
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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ORNATODELLA ANAN, A NEW YPRESIAN ROTALIID BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENUS FROM PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

ORNATODELLA ANAN, A NEW YPRESIAN ROTALIID BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENUS FROM PAKISTAN

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Haidar Salim Anan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2023.64.66

Ornatodella Anan is introduced here to elucidate a new Ypresian Rotaliid benthic foraminiferal genus, which represents a transition from between the two benthic foraminiferal genera: Ornatanomalina Haque, 1956 (with the spiraling ribs in the end stage of coiling) and Saudella Hasson, 1985 (with pustule in the early stage). According to Loeblich & Tappan the two genera: Ornatanomalina Haque and Saudella Hasson appear to be both congeneric, which doesn’t accepted here. Ornatodella n. gen. may represents an excellent biostratigraphic marker of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, zone E1).
Pages 64-66
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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