Geological Behavior (GBR)

POLLUTION BLOOM: AN APPRAISAL OF THE HAZARDOUS EFFECTS OF MINING OF PRECIOUS STONES IN ZAMFARA STATE

POLLUTION BLOOM: AN APPRAISAL OF THE HAZARDOUS EFFECTS OF MINING OF PRECIOUS STONES IN ZAMFARA STATE

ABSTRACT

POLLUTION BLOOM: AN APPRAISAL OF THE HAZARDOUS EFFECTS OF MINING OF PRECIOUS STONES IN ZAMFARA STATE

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Doris Fovwe Ogeleka and Godswill Igoni Alaminiokuma

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.35.41

In this appraisal, heavy metal concentrations in soils from Zamfara State were enumerated approximately a decade after the lead poisoning saga using indexes of pollution. The area is enhancement with valuable ores and minerals including gold making mining the most lucrative business in the area. The soils were moderate to slightly basic with a pH range from 6.49 ± 0.12 to 7.96 ± 0.15 (water) and 6.15 ± 0.10 to 7.80 ± 0.17 (KCl). Contamination / pollution (C/P) values reported for cadmium, lead, zinc and copper was 42.66, 0.59, 0.85 and 3.04 in the respective order (severe contamination to excessive pollution). The contamination factor (CF) was greater than the highest factor of 6, indicating very high contamination. The calculated values for geochemical accumulation (Igeo) and ecological risk factor (ERf) for Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu was (19.26, 0.27, 0.38, 1.37) and (1280, 2.95, 0.85, 15.2) respectively while the potential ecological risk index (ERi) was 1299, indicating that the soils were perturbed (polluted). Considering the deleterious effects heavy metals could cause and the resultant health implications, there is need to further remediate the polluted areas so as to avert harm to organisms and humans would consume crops grown in such environment.
Pages 35-41
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS USING SEISMIC REFRACTION TECHNIQUE

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS USING SEISMIC REFRACTION TECHNIQUE

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mfoniso U. Aka, Moses M. M. Ekpa, Doris O. Okoroh, Bethrand E. Oguama, Johnson C. Ibuot

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.79.83

Seismic refraction survey was conducted at Ibiono Ibom Local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, using 12 channels ES 3000S enhancement seismograph. This was done to evaluate and obtained information on depth and thickness of the shallow subsurface and characterized the bearing and engineering parameters on the bases of soil and rock competencies for stability of engineering works. The travel times of refracted waves measured were used to calculate P and S wave velocities employed in the evaluation of bearing strength and engineering parameters. The results revealed that seismic waves penetrated into three layers. The values of depth and thickness for upper layer ranged from 0.0 m to 4.5 m and 4.5 m, middle layer ranged from 5.0 m to 12.5 m and 7.5, lower layer ranged from 15.0 m to 25.2 m and 10.2 m. The bearing capacity parameters calculated were allowable bearing capacity and ultimate bearing capacity, engineering parameters: Concentration Index, Stress Ratio, Material Index and Density Gradient. The third layer reflected good competent soil and rock quality in the southeastern part of the study area, and was delineated as a better layer for engineering stability.
Pages 79-83
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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INVESTIGATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES WITHIN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, VIA AEROMAGNETIC DATA

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES WITHIN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, VIA AEROMAGNETIC DATA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ekpa, Moses M. M., Ibuot, Johnson C., Okeke, Francisca N. and Obiora, Daniel N.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.73.78

Geophysical study involving aeromagnetic method was carried out to investigate parts of Niger Delta in Nigeria, aimed at investigating the cause and nature of anomalous bodies within the study area. Spectral analysis technique was employed in quantitative interpretation to determine depth/thickness of the sedimentary basin, basement topography, structural trends, curie point depth, thermal gradient and heat flow in the area. The total magnetic intensity (TMI) anomalies had values of between -53.7nT and 119.5nT while the residual magnetic intensity ranged from -52.5 to 58.0nT. The spectral analysis revealed the depth to magnetic sources varying from 2.5 to 5.5km while the shallow magnetic sources varied from 0.89 to 1.47km. The geothermal analysis revealed the curie point depth between 11.782 and 18.048km while the calculated geothermal gradient ranged lie between 32.137 and 49.231o𝐶𝑘𝑚−1. The heat flow values ranged from 80.343 to 123.080𝑚𝑊𝑚−2. The results from this study have thrown more light to the understanding of the variation of subsurface structures in the study area. These will enhance the development of the resources and will be of economic benefit to the country if well harnessed. However, possible future research work on this active area is proposed for more robust results.
Pages 73-78
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS METHODS

ABSTRACT

A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS METHODS

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Sami Ullah, Muhib Ullah Khan and Gohar Rehman

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.68.72

One of the most common problem faced by geotechnical engineers is slope stability assessment. The predictions of slope stability in soil or rock masses is very important for the designing of reservoir dams, roads, tunnels, excavations, open pit mines, and other engineering structures. It is the importance of slope stability problem that has reasoned alternate methods for evaluating the safety of a slope. This study reviews the existing methods used for slope stability analysis. These methods are divided into five different groups which are; (a) Limit equilibrium method, (b) Numerical simulation method, (c) Artificial neural network method, (d) Limit analysis method, and (e) Vector sum method.
Pages 68-72
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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HYDROGEOPHYSICAL DELINEATION OF PROLIFIC GROUNDWATER AQUIFER AROUND STUDENTS’ HOSTELS IN FUPRE CAMPUS, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

HYDROGEOPHYSICAL DELINEATION OF PROLIFIC GROUNDWATER AQUIFER AROUND STUDENTS’ HOSTELS IN FUPRE CAMPUS, NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Alaminiokuma G.I. and Omigie J.I.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.63.67

Electrical resistivity survey was conducted around Students’ Hostels in FUPRE to delineate prolific aquifer for potable water to serve the teeming population of staff and students. Five vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger electrode configuration with a maximum current electrode spread of 300m were employed for data acquisition. WINRESIST software was employed to execute the iteration and inversion processes of computing resistivities, depths and thicknesses of the various layers and the curve types. Results indicate that the area is characterized by 4 distinct geoelectric layers inferred differently at the VES locations. Two potential groundwater aquifer zones are delineated. The unconfined shallow aquifer zones found at VES 1, 3, 4 and 5 locations have shallow overburden depth ranging between 3.7-19.3m and coarse-grained sand columns with thicknesses ranging between 2.8-17.7m while the confined deep aquifer zone found at VES 2 location coincides with deep overburden layer at a depth of 42.6m and coarse-grained sand column with appreciable thickness of 19.1m. These results suggest that boreholes for sustainable groundwater supply around the Students’ Hostels should be sited at VES 2 location and screened at a depth ≥40.0m. However, aquifers at VES 1, 3, 4 and 5 have potentials for groundwater but are vulnerable to contamination. It is recommenced that electrical resistivity and hydrogeological surveys should be conducted at different locations in FUPRE, before any borehole(s) are drilled, to delineate the appropriate aquifer for potable groundwater supply and to avoid possible contamination.
Pages 63-67
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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EVALUATION Of GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY IN FRACTURED AQUIFER USING GEOELECTRIC LAYER SUSCEPTIBILITY INDEX AT OJU, SOUTHERN BENUE TROUGH NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION Of GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY IN FRACTURED AQUIFER USING GEOELECTRIC LAYER SUSCEPTIBILITY INDEX AT OJU, SOUTHERN BENUE TROUGH NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: M. O. Eyankware, A. O. I. Selemo, P.N. Obasi, O. M Nweke

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.58.62

A combination of geoelectric and hydrogeologic concept was used in the assessment of groundwater vulnerability in fractured aquifers of Oju and environs. The study area is underlain by the sediments of the Asu River Group, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. A total of twenty-seven (27) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was carried out within the study area. Geoelectric parameters (layer, resistivity and thickness) of the overlying layers across the study area were determined and used to evaluate the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers. Three charts were compared using geo-electrically derived models; LC (Longitudinal Conductance), GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing) and GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer. Results obtained from LC revealed that the study area fell within the moderate category, GLSI showed that aquifer vulnerability were categorize within negligible to low category and GOD fell within low to moderate category. On the average, groundwater within the study area is considered moderate vulnerable to groundwater contamination.
Pages 58-62
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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GIS MAPPING OF BIR LEVELS AROUND FOSSIL FUEL AND GAS DISPENSING STATIONS AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR RADIOLOGICAL RISK IMPLICATIONS

ABSTRACT

GIS MAPPING OF BIR LEVELS AROUND FOSSIL FUEL AND GAS DISPENSING STATIONS AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR RADIOLOGICAL RISK IMPLICATIONS

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Agbalagba E. O., Nenuwe O.N, Egarievwe S.U

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.49.57

The assessment of terrestrial background ionizing radiation levels within fossil fuel and gas dispensing environments to evaluate the radiological risk around Warri metropolis has been conducted using a digilert 200 Nuclear Radiation monitor meter and a GPS. The GIS monitoring of the BIR levels was carried out between September and December 2018 by delineating the city into eight zones using GIS mapping. The measured average exposure rates ranged from 0.006mRh-1(0.50 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1) to 0.026mRh-1(2.19𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1) with an overall mean value of 0.015±0.004mRh-1 (1.26±0.32 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1). The estimated mean outdoor absorbed dose rate for the regions ranged from 116.60±40.38nGyh-1 in Jeddo region to 148.9±49.63nGyh-1 in PTI region and a mean of 129.82±32.98𝜂Gyh-1.The AEDE evaluated is 0.16±0.04 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1 while the ELCR value is 0.56±0.014µ𝑆𝑣𝑦-1. The estimated dose to organs testes receiving the highest organ dose of 0.10 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1 while the liver receives the lowest dose to organ of 0.06 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1. The GIS mapping of the examined facilities revealed that radiation levels in 38 of the 61 sampling locations (62.3%) exceeded the global ambient permissible level of 13.0 𝜇Rh-1 (1.0 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦-1) reported by UNSCEAR, therefore the measured values are adjudged high and the environment radiologically impaired. But, these may not cause any short- team health risk to the fuel/gas attendants and attendees in these stations. The obtained estimated excess lifetime cancer risk indicates low chances of contracting cancer and the radiation doses to the adult organs investigated is insignificant.
Pages 49-57
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES IN ERUEMUKOHWARIEN AREA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES IN ERUEMUKOHWARIEN AREA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mohammed S. Chaanda, Agbalagba Ezekiel, Felix Igede

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.42.48

The study was carried out in-situ using a Radalert 100 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Five facilities were investigated at the rig site which included the rig site host community as well as the camp site for the oil workers at Ekapkamreh town. Ten 10 sampling locations were evaluated at a total of 60 study points. The values obtained range between 0.115±0.018 (µSv/hr) and 0.299±0.040 (µSv/hr) for the rig site environment, 0.111±0.006 (µSv/hr) and 0.337±0.031 (µSv/hr) for field logistic base (offices and workshops), 0.114±0.011 (µSv/hr) and 0.312±0.021 (µSv/hr) for components of the mud circulation section. Also, the radiological concentration of the Chemical Store ranged between 0.126±0.019 (µSv/hr) and 1.181±0.104 (µSv/hr), while the radiological values obtained from other facilities within the rig site ranged from 0.155±0.026 (µSv/hr) and 0.249±0.026 (µSv/hr). Radiation readings obtained for soil ranged from 0.149±0.05 (µSv/hr) to 0.219±0.025 (µSv/hr) and 0.114±0.039 (µSv/hr) to 0.219±0.051 (µSv/hr) respectively at the host community and camp site. Most of the results obtained showed that the general environment of the rig site is slightly above the permissible absorbed dose rate threshold of 0.15(µSv/hr) recommended by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) in 2009. However, the exposure rates exceed the standard background level of 13µR/hr (coequal to 0.13µSv/hr). There is high tendency for the industry workers to be exposed to radiation with time.
Pages 42-48
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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SWELLING CLAY MINERALS AND SLOPE CUT FAILURES IN THE GARINONO FORMATION ALONG JALAN SUNGAI HITAM, LIBARAN, SANDAKAN

ABSTRACT

SWELLING CLAY MINERALS AND SLOPE CUT FAILURES IN THE GARINONO FORMATION ALONG JALAN SUNGAI HITAM, LIBARAN, SANDAKAN

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: John Kuna Raj

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.29.34

Jalan Sungai Hitam in the Sandakan Peninsula traverses a flat to gently undulating terrain of low hills and ridges surrounded by broad alluvial flats. Recent slope cuts expose bluish to dark grey mudstones of the Garinono Formation containing pebble to boulder sized, angular to rounded, blocks of sandstone and other rock types. Slump-mud flows have occurred at most of the slope cuts; the failed materials characterized by desiccation cracks and fissures. Soil index properties, including consistency limits and grain size analyses, indicate that the mudstones have a medium to high swell potential. X-ray diffraction analyses show the clay minerals present to be kaolinite, illite and randomly interstratified illite-montmorillonite (a swelling clay mineral). The mudstones are thus sensitive to atmospheric wet-dry cycles with repeated swelling and shrinkage giving rise to the desiccation cracks and fissures, The cracks and fissures reduce the shear strength of the mudstones and allow for the infiltration of rainwater which initiates the slump-mud flows. It is concluded that earthworks in areas of the Garinono Formation in eastern Sabah need to consider the presence of swelling clay minerals; an occurrence that can be inferred from evaluating soil index properties.
Pages 29-34
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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THE STREAM-LENGTH GRADIENT INDEX AND THE CORRESPONDING LANDFORM STRUCTURES OVER THE KIULU RIVER, NORTHWEST SABAH

ABSTRACT

THE STREAM-LENGTH GRADIENT INDEX AND THE CORRESPONDING LANDFORM STRUCTURES OVER THE KIULU RIVER, NORTHWEST SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Chung Wei Kiat, Felix Tongkul

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.26.28

In this paper, we explored the relationship between the stream-length gradient index over the Kiulu River upstream and its respective landform. The knickpoints derived from stream-length gradient index detected sudden drop in elevation that may be associated with recent tectonic activity over NW Sabah. To illustrate the changes in the stream profile, two knickpoints, F1 which coincided with historical earthquakes, and F2 which showed peak anomaly are selected. The landform over knickpoint F1 showed river diversions whereas the landform over knickpoint F2 showed deep ponding. Both field sites, however showed consistent alternation between rapids and ponding forming a step-like landform where the inferred normal fault is oriented at N40E. The stretched landform over the Kiulu river sites supports an extension setting that may be associated with gravity-sliding tectonics over NW Sabah.
Pages 26-28
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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