Geological Behavior (GBR)

COMMON OCCURRENCES OF AUTHIGENIC PYRITE CRYSTALS IN CRETACEOUS OIL SANDS AS CONSEQUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES

COMMON OCCURRENCES OF AUTHIGENIC PYRITE CRYSTALS IN CRETACEOUS OIL SANDS AS CONSEQUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES

ABSTRACT

COMMON OCCURRENCES OF AUTHIGENIC PYRITE CRYSTALS IN CRETACEOUS OIL SANDS AS CONSEQUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Timothy Bata, Nuhu K. Samaila, A.S. Maigari, M. B. Abubakar & Simon Y. Ikyoive

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.26.30

Ten (10) Cretaceous oil sands from different localities around the world were studied with the aim of reporting the common occurrence of authigenic pyrite crystals in them. The observed pyrite crystals (both framboid and euhedral) are restricted to the pore spaces of the studied oil sands, in close association with biodegraded oils and other authigenic minerals. Diagenetic processes in one of the studied samples triggered the transformation of framboidal pyrite crystals to octahedral pyrite crystals. This study demonstrates that geological conditions/processes that lead to the formation of authigenic pyrite crystals in sandstones are those that favour biodegradation. Potentially, these conditions include occurrence at shallow depths (< 2000 m), moderate reservoir temperatures that can support microbial life (temperature < 80° C), availability of micro-organisms that are capable of degrading oils in the reservoir, nutrient availability (e.g., iron, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus), and oil volume in the reservoir. Studied framboidal pyrite crystals were observed to occur within confined spaces. The oils (organic matter) associated with the studied samples are believed to have played an important role of providing the source of spherule moulds for framboid pseudomorphs and aided the stabilization of the gel in which the framboid crystals were protected. TIC fragmentograms of the saturate fractions of the oils extracted from the studied oil sands show progressive depletion of chromatographically resolved hydrocarbons (e.g. n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoid alkanes; alkyl benzenes, naphthalenes and phenanthrenes) relative to the unresolved hydrocarbon mixture, forming unresolved complex mixture (UCM) humps, consistent with oils that have undergone biodegradation.
Pages 26-30
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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PREDICTION OF ROCK MASS PROPERTIES, TUNNEL STABILITY AND SUPPORT PRESSURE BY GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) IN CROCKER FORMATION: A CASE STUDY

ABSTRACT

PREDICTION OF ROCK MASS PROPERTIES, TUNNEL STABILITY AND
SUPPORT PRESSURE BY GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) IN
CROCKER FORMATION: A CASE STUDY

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Lee Kiun You*, Ismail Abd Rahim

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.31.33

This study was conducted along a tunnel in Crocker Formation. The objectives of this study are to determine the value of Geological Strength Index (GSI) and to predict rock mass properties, very unfavourable discontinuities combination and tunnel support pressure for rock bolts or shotcrete for the tunnel. Engineering geological mapping, rock sampling and estimation of GSI values and the disturbance factor were conducted along the tunnel faces. Laboratory analysis includes Point load and dry density test and data analysis consists of kinematic analysis and limit equilibrium analysis. The rock mass was characterised by 94.88 MPa UCS, 0.024 MN/m3 unit weight, widely space and high persistency of discontinuities. The GSI value is 50 with 0.8 disturbance factor. The cohesion, tensile strength and friction angle are 3.671 MPa, 0.056 MPa and 25.20°, respectively. There are eight possibilities of discontinuities combinations on tunnel roof that have factor of safety (F.O.S) lower than 2 and combination of joints 2, 4 and 6 has the highest maximum wedge volume of 28.37 m3. The maximum support pressure of rock bolts or shotcrete for F.O.S of 2 is 0.04 MN. The individual discontinuity plane has been identified to overestimate friction angle and cohesion values, then the GSI system should be applied in homogeneous or isotropic and not in structurally controlled rock masses.
Pages 31-33
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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GEOSITE HERITAGE AND FORMATION EVOLUTION OF MAGA WATERFALL, LONG PASIA, SOUTH OF SIPITANG, SABAH

ABSTRACT

GEOSITE HERITAGE AND FORMATION EVOLUTION OF MAGA WATERFALL, LONG PASIA, SOUTH OF SIPITANG, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Hennie Fitria Soehady , Junaidi Asis, Sanudin Tahir, Baba Musta, Muhammad Abdullah, Hazerina Pungut

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.34.38

Maga Waterfall is situated in the inland of Long Pasia which is at the south of Sipitang, Sabah. The location of Air Terjun Maga is still less known by the public however, if it is promoted it has the potential to attract local and foreign tourists. An identification survey on the geosite development potential has been done in this area to establish a geological heritage in Sabah. Maga Waterfall has three tiers and streamflow on the rock surface of Meligan Formation. The rock outcrop shows clear primary structures of shallow marine depositional environment of shoreface deposit and secondary structures such as fault and joints which shaped the formation of Maga Waterfall. Apart from that, interesting morphologies made by river erosion are also present. The unique culture of local people and recreational activities could attract more visitors to this geosite. Conservation efforts need to be taken to ensure the sustainability of geotourism development of geological heritage resources in this area..
Pages 34-38
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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STRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOGENE SEQUENCES IN WESTON – SIPITANG, SABAH

ABSTRACT

STRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOGENE SEQUENCES IN WESTON – SIPITANG, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Tracy Binti Guan Leong, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Junaidi Asis

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.01.04

This study is aimed to renew the stratigraphy in Weston – Sipitang especially for Temburong Formation and Crocker Formation which are known as the Paleogene sequences. The interfingering relationship between Temburong Formation and Crocker Formation shows that the Temburong Formation is older than the Crocker Formation in terms of stratigraphic sequences which had been the opposite. Facies analysis, facies association studies and the correlation of lithostratigraphic units in the study area and earlier studies helped to interpret stratigraphy and renew the position of stratigraphic for the Paleogene sequences. Temburong Formation and Crocker Formation are dated as Upper Eocene to Lower Miocene age.
Pages 01-04
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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SPRING-WATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE RESOURCE AFTER EARTHQUAKE FOR VILLAGERS, KOTA BELUD SABAH

ABSTRACT

SPRING-WATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE RESOURCE AFTER EARTHQUAKE FOR VILLAGERS, KOTA BELUD SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rohana Tair, Laurine Dell

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.05.11

The earthquake natural disaster at Kundasang Ranau, Sabah in Jun 2015 has strongly impacted the source of water supply in Kota Belud district. Kota Belud is located downstream from Mount Kinabalu, where the source of water for the district once came from before the natural disaster occurred. The earthquake forced the local communities to source for alternative water supply for survival i.e spring-water, also known as gravity water by local communities. The locals depend on the alternative resource to survive even though the water is untreated both physically and chemically. This study aims to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) and water quality (pH value, turbidity, temperature, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids) in spring-water from two selected villages; Bukit Bendera and Tamalang, Kota Belud. The samples were collected from two different sources; from the spring-water catchment in the upper hill and from the end user’s house water pipes for domestic usages. Sampling repetition was done three times. The results show that there were significant differences (P<0.05) found for pH value, turbidity, temperature, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and Pb for heavy metals at different areas (hill & house) throughout the sampling repetitions. In addition, the turbidity, BOD, and Cd level were found to exceed the permissible level as drinking water. The spring-water at Bukit Bendera and Tamalang village, Kota Belud are safe to use for washing but is not suitable as human consumptions, unless filtered. In conclusion, monitoring of the spring-water quality as an alternative resource after the earthquake is very important as well as precautionary actions for future natural disasters in Sabah.
Pages 05-11
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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URBANIZATION VS. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: SOME OBSERVATION IN TELIPOK, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

URBANIZATION VS. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: SOME OBSERVATION IN TELIPOK, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir, Baba Musta, Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.12.17

The study area is underlined by Crocker Formation of Eocene to late Early Miocene age and Quaternary deposit. Rapid urbanization activities have caused changes in land use. These activities accelerate higher rate of weathering, surface runoff, soil erosion and siltation. Urbanization processes may contribute to exposure of impervious surface, loss of vegetation cover, modification of slope gradient and drainage system. This study provides strong evidence that urbanization at the study area negatively affects the natural environment. Soil erosion, siltation, poor water quality and flash floods are common within the study area in the event of heavy rainstorm. The main factors causing environmental problem in the study area are natural (geology, meteorology, geography, topography and drainage system) and human (lack of proper planning, human activities and community’s attitude). Therefore, any activity which potentially causing environmental problem must be implemented efficiently. Strict enforcement of environmental (soil erosion, siltation, water quality and flash flood) regulation and sustainable land use planning and management is crucial. Serious efforts to increase the community’s awareness to environmental problem and reconstruction of natural ecosystem must be taken. This is to ensure that future activities in the study area will not cause further damage to natural environmental condition or ecosystem.
Pages 12-17
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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GEOHAZARDS IN SANDAKAN TOWN AREA, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

GEOHAZARDS IN SANDAKAN TOWN AREA, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.18.23

The geology of the Sandakan town area provides a favourable setting for geomorphological hazards occurrences. The exposed rocks in the study area and its surrounding vary in types and ages, from Late Eocene-Early Miocene Neogene’s clastic sediment of the Garinono Formation, the Sandakan Formation and Volcanic Facies to vary recent Quaternary alluvial materials which are still being deposited. These rock units are dissected by numerous lineaments with complex structural styles developed during series of regional Tertiary tectonic activities. Rapid urbanization activities have caused changes in the land use. Urbanization processes may contribute to the exposure of impervious surface, loss of vegetation cover, modification of slope gradient and drainage systems. The last decade has seen slope failure, flash flood and erosion events, which have claimed lives, damaged properties and increased the cost of maintenance. The main factors causing geomorphological hazards occurrences in the study area are natural (geology, meteorology, topography and drainage system) and human factors (lack of proper planning, human activities and community’s attitude). Serious efforts to increase the community’s awareness to geomorphological hazards occurrences and reconstruction of natural ecosystem must be taken. To handle this issue, both prevention and mitigation are necessary. At the planning level a multi disciplinary approach to zoning, risk assessment and design with construction practices is recommended. This is to ensure that future activities will not cause further damage to natural environmental condition or ecosystem.
Pages 18-23
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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EARTHQUAKE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (EVAS): ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY AND SOCIAL VULNERABILITY IN RANAU AREA, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

EARTHQUAKE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (EVAS): ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY AND SOCIAL VULNERABILITY IN RANAU AREA, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Elystarina Indan, Rodeano Roslee,Felix Tongkul, Norbet Simon

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.24.28

Earthquakes are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property. There is a need to identify the possible risk by assessing the vulnerability of the research area. The topic on Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment (EVAs) in Malaysia is very new and received little attention from geoscientists and engineers. Taking the 5.0 Ranau Earthquake 2015 as research study, the research’s main objective was to identify the social vulnerability and environment vulnerability on that area. The framework was formulated semi quantitively through the development of database for risk elements (properties) based on the information from secondary data, literature review and fieldwork. The vulnerability parameter includes social status (injury, fatalities, safety, loss of accommodation and public awareness) and interference of environment (affected period, daily operation and diversity). Each considered parameter in the vulnerability parameter is allocated with certain index value ranges from 0 (0% damage/victims/period),0.25 (1-25% damage/victim/period), 0.50 (26-50% damage/victims/periods), 0.75 (damage/victims/period), and 1.0 (75-100% damage/victim/periods). The value obtained from field work are calculated by using formula and are classified into five classes of vulnerability namely class 1 (<0.20): Very Low Vulnerability: Class 2 (0.21-0.40): Low Vulnerability; Class 3 (0.41-0.60); Medium Vulnerability; Class 4 (0.61-0.80): High Vulnerability; and Class 5 (>0.81): Very High Vulnerability only. Results from this study indicate that a further study is needed to the area of high to very high vulnerability only. This approach is suitable as a guideline for preliminary development in the research area and potentially to be extended with different background and environments.
Pages 24-28
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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SUITABILITY OF DBELA METHODS AS SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR BUILDINGS IN KOTA KINABALU, SABAH

ABSTRACT

SUITABILITY OF DBELA METHODS AS SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR BUILDINGS IN KOTA KINABALU, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Noor Sheena Herayani Harith, Lesley Housten C. Kibata, Abdul Karim Bin Mirasa

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2018.29.31

Sabah experienced moderate seismicity in the active fault zones located in Kundasang, Ranau of 6.0 MW within minor damage recorded at Sabah recently. The damage following the earthquake and more than 100 aftershocks affected 61 buildings such as schools, hospital and mosque, 22 roads and 22 slopes. Over the past 114 years, a total of 124 with magnitudes ranging from 2.9 to 6.0 are known to have occurred. The earthquake in Sabah that struck Ranau, carrying a moment magnitude of 6.0 on 5 June recently lasted for 30 seconds. This earthquake was the strongest to affect Malaysia since 1976 in Lahad Datu. The latest thesis in the Sabah region had been carried out in Kundasang, Kudat and two buildings in KK city. The objective was to presents the evaluation of soil sample taken in Kota Kinabalu (KK) city that could possibly subjected to low intensity earthquake effects. The evaluation of determination of the soil amplification factor is used to determine the influence of soil condition on buildings in KK city. With the input motion of Whittier Narrows (6.0 Mw, ts = 0.005 s) and KKM Ranau (5.9 Mw, ts = 0.01 s), the analysis of the maximum acceleration for PGA and PSA will be varies with the use on program of NERA and DEEPSOIL V5.1. From the appendixes as shown in appendix, it is known that most of their soils are consisting of a surface alluvium layer varying the thickness in between of approximately 5 m and 20 m in refer to some researcher. Most of the soil condition is reviewed that there are soil type of B, C, D and E in according to (Technical Committe B/525, 2005). This study shows that the soil amplification factors for each location in KK city are various with the input motion of 5.9 Mw, ts = 0.01 s and 6.0 Mw, ts = 0.005 s.
Pages 29-31
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SLOPE FAILURE ALONG THE KIMANIS TO KENINGAU HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SLOPE FAILURE ALONG THE KIMANIS TO KENINGAU HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Felix Tongkul

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2018.01.09

The geology along the Kimanis to Keningau Highway provides a favourable setting for engineering geological instability. The area is underlain by the Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) to vary recent Quaternary alluvial materials which are still being deposited. Crocker Formation consists mostly of interbedded grey sandstones and grey mudstones or shales. The sandstones are texturally immature where angular to subrounded quarts grains are cemented by clay minerals and occasionally by calcite. The Crocker Formation has also undergone intense deformation. The tectonic complexities influenced the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks, resulting in a high degree of weathering and instability. The weathered materials are unstable and may experience sliding due to by high pore pressure and intensively geomorphological processes. In this study, a total of 28 selected critical slope failures were studied and classified into two main groups: rock slope and soil slope. Failures in soil slopes (including embankments) are 18 (64 %) whereas 10 of all failures (36 %) of rock slope. Soil slope failures normally involved large volumes of failed material as compared much rock slopes, where the failures are mostly small. Of the 18 failures in soil slopes, 6 (33 %) are embankment failures making them 21 % of all types of failures. Kinematics rock slope analyses indicates that the variable potential of circular, planar, wedges and toppling failures modes as well as the combination of more than one mode of aforementioned failure. Rock and soil slopes stability analysis indicates that the factor of safety value as unsafe (0.50 to 0.96). The main factors causing slope failure occurrences in the study area are natural (geology, meteorology, topography and drainage system) and human factors (lack of proper planning, human activities and community’s attitude). Development planning has to consider the hazard and environmental management program. This engineering geological study should be prioritized and take into consideration in the initial step in all infrastructures program and it may play a vital role in landslide hazard and risk assessment to ensure the public safety.
Pages 01-09
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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