Geological Behavior (GBR)

Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: GOH THIAN LAI , AINUL MARDHIYAH MOHD RAZIB,NUR AMANINA MAZLAN, ABDUL GHANI RAFEK, AILIE SOFYIANA SERASA, NORBERT SIMON, NORAINI SURIP, LEE KHAI ERN4AND TUAN RUSLI MOHAMED

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.22.26

The uniqueness of karsttopography in Kinta Valley lies with the spectacular shape of the steep-sided limestone towers. However, theinstability ofthese hillslopes may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to investigate the failure modes of 9 slopes in the vicinity ofnorthernKinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. There were two types of failure modes identified in the study area,which are planar and wedge failures. Planar failures were identified on slope GL3of Gunung Lang and slope GR3of Gunung Rapat with the dip direction and dip angle of 280⁰/79⁰ and 004⁰/ 64⁰ respectively. Two wedge failures were identified on slope QXL1of Qing Xing Ling, Taman Saikat with dip direction and dip angle of 252⁰/82⁰ and 302⁰/74⁰ respectively. A wedge failure was identified on slope GL3 for Gunung Lang, slope GR1, slope GR3 for Gunung Rapat and slope QXL2 for Qing Xing Ling,Taman Saikat. The dip direction and dip angle for the respective wedges failure were 345⁰/65⁰, 036⁰/ 49⁰, 006⁰/ 64⁰ and 025⁰/60⁰. No failure was identified on slope GL1, and slope GL2,forGunung Lang and slope GR2, and slope GR4forGunungRapat.
Pages 22-26
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah: Preliminary Interpretation

ABSTRACT

Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah:Preliminary Interpretation.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Junaidi Asis, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Ahmad Ridhwan Rahim, Zainey Konjing, Razali Che Kob, H.D. Tjia

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.27.29

Small benthic foraminifera have been fully extracted from the mudstone of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah. The Kudat Formation comprise thick-bedded, quartzose to feldspathic, locally calcareous sandstone, an overall abundance of lignitic and carbonaceous layers, and the presence of red shales and detrital calcarenites. A total of 22 mudstone samples of Kudat Formation in difference localities have been collected for foraminifera analysis. All samples are processed according to standard micropaleontological method. Twenty-five species of small benthic foraminifera consisting of the agglutinated and hyaline group have identified. Almost all mudstone samples of Sikuati Member and Matunggong Member are consisting of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera assemblage indicative of bathyal to abyssal. K21 sample of Tajau member and K9 sample of Sikuati Member consist of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera together with reworked calcareous foraminifera. Foraminifera analysis shows that the Kudat Formation sediment was deposited in deep marine setting ranging from bathyal to neritic..
Pages 27-29
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Goh Thian Lai, Ainul Mardhiyah Mohd Razib, Nur Amanina Mazlan, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Ailie Sofyiana Serasa, Norbert Simon, Noraini Surip, Lee Khai Ern and Tuan Rusli Mohamed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.05.09

The uniqueness of the karst topography of Kinta Valley is the result of the spectacular shaped steep-sided limestone towers. The instability of these hillslopes however, may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. This paper presents the results of slope stability assessment by using kinematic analysis to investigate the possible failure modes of 7 slopes in Gua Naga Mas (GNM1, GNM2 and GNM3), Gua Kandu (GK1, GK2 and GK3) and Gua Tempurung (GT) located in the southern part of the Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. From the results of the slope stability assessment, it was determined that planar failure and wedge failure were the main failure modes. The GNM1 slope of Gua Naga Mas consist of four wedge failures and a planar failure with dip directions/dip angles of 005⁰/54⁰, 354⁰/59⁰, 124⁰/52⁰, 360⁰/50⁰ and 063⁰/70⁰ respectively. The GNM2 slope consists of a wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 021⁰/64⁰. Two wedge failures and a planar failure were identified on slope GNM3 with the respective dip directions/dip angles of 336⁰/49⁰, 301⁰/68⁰ and 270⁰/71⁰. The GK1 slope for Gua Kandu consists of wedge and planar failures with dip directions/dip angles of 231⁰/49⁰ and 217⁰/49⁰ respectively. The mode of failure at GK2 slope was identified as wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 154⁰/44⁰. No mode of failure was identified on slope of GK3. Slope GT of Gua Tempurung was identified to have two wedge failures with dip directions/dip angles of 011⁰/49⁰ and 321⁰/48⁰ respectively..
Pages 05-06
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee , Norbert Simon

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.01.04

This study focused on the discontinuity survey and mode of rock slope failure along the Bundu Tuhan to Kundasang road, approximately 84th km to 96th km from Kota Kinabalu city, Sabah. The area is underlain by the Trusmadi Formation (Palaeocene to Eocene age), the Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) and the Pinousuk Gravels (Upper Pleistocene to Holocene age). These rock units show numerous lineaments with complex structural styles developed during several regional Tertiary tectonic activities. The tectonic complexities reduced the physical and engineering properties of the rock masses and produced intensive displacements and discontinuities among the strata, resulting in high degree of weathering process and instability. The weathered materials are unstable and may cause sliding and falling induced by high pore pressure subjected by both shallow and deep hydrodynamic processes. In this study, a total of ten (10) selected critical rock slopes failure was studied. Kinematics slope stability analyses indicates that the variable potential of circular, planar, wedge and toppling failures modes as well as the combination of more than one mode of aforementioned failure. The rock properties of ten (10) rock samples indicated that the point load strength index ranges from 0.33 MPa to 0.52 MPa (moderately week) and the uniaxial compressive strength range from 7.81 MPa to 12.57 MPa (moderately week). Development planning has to consider the hazard and environmental management program. This engineering geological study may play a vital role in rock slope stability assessment to ensure the public safety.
Pages 01-04
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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TEMPORAL LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT USING LANDSLIDE DENSITY TECHNIQUE

ABSTRACT

TEMPORAL LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT USING LANDSLIDE DENSITY TECHNIQUE.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Norbert Simon, Rodeano Roslee, Goh ian Lai

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.10.13

In this study, a temporal landslide assessment was carried out in a landslide prone areaalong the Ranau-Tambunan road in Sabah, Malaysia. The assessment was based on landslides interpreted from 1978 and 1994 aerial photographs and also from fieldworks which were done in 2009 and 2011. A total of 148 landslides were recorded from those four years with 24, 47, 56 and 21 landslides respectively for the year 1978, 1994, 2009 and 2011. Based on these landslides, a landslide density map was produced for each year which consist of three classes; low (1 landslide/km2); moderate (2-3 landslides/km2); and high (≥ 4 landslides/km2). Based on the combination of landslides occurred throughout the assessment years, 22 sections of the road were indicated to have high landslide density. Intersection with high lineament density zone shows that 16 of the high landslide density areas are located inside within the high lineament density zone. From both of these maps, a landslide susceptibility map was generated. Landslide records acquired from aerial photographs captured in 2005 was use to validate the map. The validation result shows that 83% of the total landslides in 2005 are within the high susceptibility zone and this value indicates that the accuracy of the susceptibility map is acceptable. The high susceptibility zone in the study area can be categorized as ‘highly susceptible’ with moderate hazard based on the International guideline on susceptibility and hazard zonation. In terms of landslide density, it is expected that 5.4 landslides can be observed for every km2 in the high susceptibility zone. .
Pages 10-13
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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WAVE-DOMINATED SHORELINE DEPOSITS IN THE LATE MIOCENE SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE IN THE MIRI FORMATION NORTH SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

WAVE-DOMINATED SHORELINE DEPOSITS IN THE LATE MIOCENE SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE IN THE MIRI FORMATION NORTH SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)

Author: Muhd Nur Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Sanudin Hj. Tahir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.14.19

The research area is located in Miri region, north Sarawak. Observation was focused on selected outcrops along road cuts and beach. The distribution of outcrops is widely distributed at a few localities in Miri region such as Tanjong Lobang, Airport road, Hospital road and Oil Well road. Sedimentary sequences can be traced by facies variations as shoreline environment based on the sedimentary structures. Four facies were identified and characterised successfully in the study area based on their sedimentary structures, namely facies 1: planar cross stratified (PcS), facies 2: swaley cross stratified (ScS), facies 3: swaley-Hummocky cross stratified (SHcS), facies 4: Hummocky cross stratified (HcS) and heterollithic facies (He). Facies evaluation deduced that the sedimentation settings resulted as foreshore, upper shoreface, middle shoreface, lower shoreface and tidal (minor occurrence). Wave-dominated in the upward coarsening interval is unambiguous that representing by abundance of hummocky cross stratification and other storm deposits in the sandstone dominated portions, well-defined swaley cross stratified sandstone interval, and up to several meters thick sets of planar cross beds interval interpreted to have been formed by swash waves. Heterolithic units in this wave dominated sequences are as minor occurrence of tidal influence during fair weather .
Pages 14-19
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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FACIES AND SANDSTONE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KUDAT FORMATION, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

FACIES AND SANDSTONE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KUDAT FORMATION, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Sanudin Tahir, Kong Vui Siong, Baba Musta, Junaidi Asis

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.20.25

The Kudat Formation, formed the major rock unit of Kudat Peninsula in the northern tip of Borneo Island, is made up of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with fossiliferous limestone lenses. Lithostratigraphically, it is divided into Tajau Member and Sikuati Member. The Tajau Member differs from the Sikuati Member by the thicker coarsening upward sequence and the presence of limestone lenses. Field mapping and petrographic analysis were utilized to study the facies and sandstone characteristics. The formation as a potential reservoir is largely dependent on the original sandstone composition, which was influenced by deposition in a shallow marine setting and local sourcing activity. The succession of the sequence is composed of a major shoreface deposits during the late Early Miocene. The measured sections are predominantly composed of interbedded sandstone and mudstone usually show sedimentary structures which are indicative of wave and tidal processes, such as swaley, hummocky, trough and planar cross stratifications. The sequence grades up-section into facies packages of increasing tidal energy and terminate with the deposition within the upper regime shoreline settings. The selected Tajau sandstones in this study are texturally and mineralogically mature quartz arenites with good sorting. However, the presence of unstable lithic grains and feldspars during diagenetic processes contributed to the reduction of porosity, giving irregular porosity, due to deformation by compaction, and susceptibility to chemical alteration of labile minerals. Reservoir quality was also influenced by the subsequent diagenesis of the sandstones, which was driven by increase overburden pressure and could be culminated by increase temperature during the proceeding depth. Lithic fragments, feldspars and authigenic cements were altered to form diagenetic mineral suites, which tend to occlude porosity; however, dissolution and chemical reactions of some of these grains also enhanced secondary porosity development. Most observed porosity in the sandstone sequence is secondary, developed from dissolution of both carbonate cement and unstable framework grains. Mean porosity suggested a weak decreasing trend with depth of burial. However, detailed examination of several localities revealed that porosity development was strongly influenced by local factors. Thus, sandstones of the Kudat Formation are generally fair reservoir characteristics, due to the presence of unstable framework grains, early carbonate cementation and authigenic/diagenetic mineral suites.
Pages 20-25
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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COMMON OCCURRENCES OF AUTHIGENIC PYRITE CRYSTALS IN CRETACEOUS OIL SANDS AS CONSEQUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES

ABSTRACT

COMMON OCCURRENCES OF AUTHIGENIC PYRITE CRYSTALS IN CRETACEOUS OIL SANDS AS CONSEQUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Timothy Bata, Nuhu K. Samaila, A.S. Maigari, M. B. Abubakar & Simon Y. Ikyoive

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.26.30

Ten (10) Cretaceous oil sands from different localities around the world were studied with the aim of reporting the common occurrence of authigenic pyrite crystals in them. The observed pyrite crystals (both framboid and euhedral) are restricted to the pore spaces of the studied oil sands, in close association with biodegraded oils and other authigenic minerals. Diagenetic processes in one of the studied samples triggered the transformation of framboidal pyrite crystals to octahedral pyrite crystals. This study demonstrates that geological conditions/processes that lead to the formation of authigenic pyrite crystals in sandstones are those that favour biodegradation. Potentially, these conditions include occurrence at shallow depths (< 2000 m), moderate reservoir temperatures that can support microbial life (temperature < 80° C), availability of micro-organisms that are capable of degrading oils in the reservoir, nutrient availability (e.g., iron, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus), and oil volume in the reservoir. Studied framboidal pyrite crystals were observed to occur within confined spaces. The oils (organic matter) associated with the studied samples are believed to have played an important role of providing the source of spherule moulds for framboid pseudomorphs and aided the stabilization of the gel in which the framboid crystals were protected. TIC fragmentograms of the saturate fractions of the oils extracted from the studied oil sands show progressive depletion of chromatographically resolved hydrocarbons (e.g. n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoid alkanes; alkyl benzenes, naphthalenes and phenanthrenes) relative to the unresolved hydrocarbon mixture, forming unresolved complex mixture (UCM) humps, consistent with oils that have undergone biodegradation.
Pages 26-30
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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PREDICTION OF ROCK MASS PROPERTIES, TUNNEL STABILITY AND SUPPORT PRESSURE BY GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) IN CROCKER FORMATION: A CASE STUDY

ABSTRACT

PREDICTION OF ROCK MASS PROPERTIES, TUNNEL STABILITY AND
SUPPORT PRESSURE BY GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI) IN
CROCKER FORMATION: A CASE STUDY

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Lee Kiun You*, Ismail Abd Rahim

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.31.33

This study was conducted along a tunnel in Crocker Formation. The objectives of this study are to determine the value of Geological Strength Index (GSI) and to predict rock mass properties, very unfavourable discontinuities combination and tunnel support pressure for rock bolts or shotcrete for the tunnel. Engineering geological mapping, rock sampling and estimation of GSI values and the disturbance factor were conducted along the tunnel faces. Laboratory analysis includes Point load and dry density test and data analysis consists of kinematic analysis and limit equilibrium analysis. The rock mass was characterised by 94.88 MPa UCS, 0.024 MN/m3 unit weight, widely space and high persistency of discontinuities. The GSI value is 50 with 0.8 disturbance factor. The cohesion, tensile strength and friction angle are 3.671 MPa, 0.056 MPa and 25.20°, respectively. There are eight possibilities of discontinuities combinations on tunnel roof that have factor of safety (F.O.S) lower than 2 and combination of joints 2, 4 and 6 has the highest maximum wedge volume of 28.37 m3. The maximum support pressure of rock bolts or shotcrete for F.O.S of 2 is 0.04 MN. The individual discontinuity plane has been identified to overestimate friction angle and cohesion values, then the GSI system should be applied in homogeneous or isotropic and not in structurally controlled rock masses.
Pages 31-33
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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GEOSITE HERITAGE AND FORMATION EVOLUTION OF MAGA WATERFALL, LONG PASIA, SOUTH OF SIPITANG, SABAH

ABSTRACT

GEOSITE HERITAGE AND FORMATION EVOLUTION OF MAGA WATERFALL, LONG PASIA, SOUTH OF SIPITANG, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Hennie Fitria Soehady , Junaidi Asis, Sanudin Tahir, Baba Musta, Muhammad Abdullah, Hazerina Pungut

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.34.38

Maga Waterfall is situated in the inland of Long Pasia which is at the south of Sipitang, Sabah. The location of Air Terjun Maga is still less known by the public however, if it is promoted it has the potential to attract local and foreign tourists. An identification survey on the geosite development potential has been done in this area to establish a geological heritage in Sabah. Maga Waterfall has three tiers and streamflow on the rock surface of Meligan Formation. The rock outcrop shows clear primary structures of shallow marine depositional environment of shoreface deposit and secondary structures such as fault and joints which shaped the formation of Maga Waterfall. Apart from that, interesting morphologies made by river erosion are also present. The unique culture of local people and recreational activities could attract more visitors to this geosite. Conservation efforts need to be taken to ensure the sustainability of geotourism development of geological heritage resources in this area..
Pages 34-38
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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