EVALUATION OF GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES AND PETROGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDSTONE, BAGH AREA, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ali Asghar, Wakeel Hussain, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Hasnain, Muhammad Ali, Obaidullah
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Sandstones are abundant in the regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in northeastern Pakistan. However, physio-mechanical data for project planning and construction of these sandstones, which serve as aggregates and foundations for a variety of infrastructures, are lacking. This research aims to investigate the petrographic and physio-mechanical characteristics of Murree and Kamlial Formation sandstones in the Rawalpindi group. The physio-mechanical parameters included specific gravity, water absorption, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), slake durability, Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), and Brazilian. The findings suggest that the sandstone of the Murree and Kamlial formations can be classified as construction-grade rocks. A comprehensive analysis of physico-mechanical observations of these sandstones shows a statistically significant correlation with point load index, Brazilian tensile strength, and UPV in a saturated condition against unconfined compression strength (UCS). Whereas the specific gravity, water absorption, slake durability index, and UPV in dry conditions found no statistically significant correlation against UCS. By rigorous petrographic research, the texture of quartz %, mineralogy and mineral alteration, the existence of micro-fractures, and mineral size distribution all contribute to the total strength qualities of these sandstones. To comprehend the suitability of Muree and Kamlial Formation sandstones, physio-mechanical characteristics were then correlated with the sequence (Murree sandstone) exposed at the Jena Kor village in Peshawar Basin. Based on the results, the sandstones of the Murree and Kamlial Formations in the study area are found appropriate for construction.