Geological Behavior (GBR)

GIS Application for Comprehensive Spatial Soil Erosion Analysis with MUSLE Model in Sandakan Town Area, Sabah, Malaysia

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GIS Application for Comprehensive Spatial Soil Erosion Analysis with MUSLE Model in Sandakan Town Area, Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

 

GIS Application for Comprehensive Spatial Soil Erosion Analysis with MUSLE Model in Sandakan Town Area, Sabah, Malaysia

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Kawi Bidin, Baba Musta, Sanudin Tahir, Felix Tongkul, Mohd Norazman Norhisham

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.01.05

Soil erosion is one of the principal causes of soil degradation in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia. The natural phenomenon of erosion is now accelerated by human activities that alter the natural mechanisms. This acceleration is caused by destruction of plant cover, the growing of wrong cultivations, unsuitable farming techniques etc., all of which may be prevented with correct management and land planning. Soil erosion has been identified as one of the important environmental issues and therefore, detail assessment on prediction of soil loss and its impacts has been carried out using the application of the Modified Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) and Geographical Information System (GIS). ARC-INFO was used for the storage of the data layer on each factor controlling soil erosion. Identification of potential high-risk erosion areas was made using a thematic data layering approach to analyze risk areas. The quantitative soil loss (t ha-1 yr-1) ranges estimates by MUSLE model by a spatial information analisis approach (GIS) were computed: (a) Very High risk (>150 tons/ha/year); (b) High risk (100-150 tons/ha/year); (c) Moderate risk (50-100 tons/ha/year); (d) Low risk (10-50 tons/ha/year); and (e) Very low risk (<10 tons/ha/year). About 46.33% of the area was classified as very low, 43.50% as low, 5.23% as moderate, 4.49% as high and 0% as very high. Soil erosion hazard has been identified and found to be significant in areas with slope above 36.96o. All findings showed that integration of GIS can be used for spatial analysis in a large scale. Production of A total value maps can be applied to particular development planning areas especially for housing and agriculture developments.
Pages 01-05
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Landslide Susceptibility Analysis (LSA) using Deterministic Model (Infinite Slope) (DESSISM) in the Kota Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

 

Landslide Susceptibility Analysis (LSA) using Deterministic Model (Infinite Slope) (DESSISM) in the Kota Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Norbert Simon, Felix Tongkul, Mohd. Norazman Norhisham & Mohd. Radzif Taharin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.06.09

A practical application for landslide susceptibility analysis (LSA) based on two dimensional deterministic slope stability (infinite slope model) (DESSISM) was used to calculate factor of safety (FOS) and failure probabilities for the area of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. LSA is defined as quantitative or qualitative assessment of the classification, volume (or area) and spatial distribution of landslides which exist or potentially may occur in an area. In this paper, LSA value can be expressed by a FOS, which is the ratio between the forces that make the slope fail and those that prevent the slope from failing. An geotechnical engineering properties data base has been developed on the basis of a series of parameter maps such as effective cohesion (C’), unit weight of soil ,)(depth of failure surface (Z), height of ground water table (Zw), Zw/Z dimensionless (m), unit weight of water ,)w(slope surface inclination (β) and effective angle of shearing resistance (). Taking into consideration the cause of the landslide, identified as groundwater change, the maximum groundwater level recorded corresponding to the actual situation of the most recent landslide is considered in this study. The highest probability value of the various scenarios was selected for each pixel and final LSA map were constructed. It has been found from this study that β and Zw parameters have the higher influence on landslide instability. The result validation between the examined LSA map and result of landslide distribution map (LDM) were evaluated. This DESSISM had higher prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy is 84%. The resulting LSA maps can be used by local administration or developers to locate areas prone to landslide area, determine the land use suitability area and to organize more detailed analysis in the identified “hot spot” areas.
Pages 06-09
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Kampung Mesilou landslide: The controlling factors

ABSTRACT

Kampung Mesilou landslide: The controlling factors.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ismail Abd Rahim, Lee Kiun You & Nabila Mohd Salleh

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.19.21

This landslide study was conducted in Kampung Mesilou, Kundasang. Desk study, field study and data analysis used were based on recorded slides occurred in 2008, July 2013, November 2013 and June 2015. These episodic landslides have significant impact on road, concrete bridge, vegetable gardens and killed a farmer. Factors that control the slides are natural and anthropogenic activities. The natural factors include geological characteristics, weathering, excessive precipitation and natural river phenomena. Human activity is represented by unguided cutting slope for development purposes. The geological factor consists of unconsolidated Pinosuk Gravel rock unit, topography and occurrence of active northeast-southwest fault zone crossing this area. High weathering rate has weakening the underlying rock unit as well as heavy precipitation. Intermittently high energy during storm of the main river channel of Mesilou River has been increasing the rate of erosion at slope base since few decades. Natural slope was steepened during road construction and become less stable. Slope stability analysis has confirmed the slope is unstable with FOS < 1, especially during rainy session.
Pages 19-21
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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APPLICATION OF GSI SYSTEM FOR SLOPE STABILITY STUDIES ON SELECTED SLOPES OF THE CROCKER FORMATION IN KOTA KINABALU AREA, SABAH

ABSTRACT

 

APPLICATION OF GSI SYSTEM FOR SLOPE STABILITY STUDIES ON SELECTED
SLOPES OF THE CROCKER FORMATION IN KOTA KINABALU AREA, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Lee Kiun You & Ismail Abd. Rahim

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.10.12

This study was conducted on two selected slopes in Kota Kinabalu area of Sabah. The area is underlain by Crocker Formation which consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale layers. The objectives of this study are to determine the Geological Strength Index (GSI) rating, rock mass properties and slope stability for the selected slopes. Engineering geological mapping and discontinuity survey were conducted to obtain quantitative description of discontinuities as well as rock sampling based on grain sizes. GSI rating and disturbance factor was obtained from discontinuity survey and field observation on the slope face, respectively. Residual GSI rating was determined using empirical method. Laboratory study was done to determine the Uniaxial Compressive Strength via point load test and unit weight by dry density test along with the intact rock constant. Rock mass properties such as cohesion, friction angle, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and residual strength were determined by applying GSI system into the Hoek-Brown criterion. Kinematic analysis and finite element analysis were conducted to identify localised mode of failure and the safety factor of the selected slopes. Prescriptive measures were used to determine the rock cut slope designs. GSI rating for both slopes were obtained with both slopes can be considered as stable according to kinematic analysis and finite element analysis. Prescriptive measures for slope protection are needed to prevent water pressure build up and future failure.
Pages 10-12
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENTS AROUND NUKAKATAN VALLEY, TAMBUNAN, SABAH

ABSTRACT

 

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENTS AROUND NUKAKATAN VALLEY, TAMBUNAN, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Hennie Fitria Wulandary Soehady Erfen, Junaidi Asis, Muhammad Abdullah, Baba Musta, Sanudin Tahir, Hazerina Pungut & Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.13.15

The objective of this paper is to assess the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in sediments from Nukakatan Valley, Tambunan, Sabah. In this study 13 soil samples were collected from different sampling station of river sediments and soil profiles. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) analysis. The result of analysis shows that highest concentration was copper with the average of 21.77 ppm, and followed by nickel with concentration level was 15.94 ppm. The concentration of chromium was 15.15 ppm, arsenic was 11.91 ppm and lead was 10.39 ppm. The soils samples are identified as non-polluted due to the low concentration of chromium, copper, nickel and lead but heavily polluted with arsenic when measured using Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent.
Pages 13-15
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Comparison of Cohesion (c’), and Angle of Internal Friction (Ф’) Distribution in Highland Area of Kundasang by using Ordinary Kriging and Simple Kriging.

ABSTRACT

Comparison of Cohesion (c’), and Angle of Internal Friction (Ф’) Distribution in Highland Area of Kundasang by using Ordinary Kriging and Simple Kriging.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mohd. Radzif. Taharin, Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.16.18

The objective of the research is to determine the distribution of cohesion (c’), and angle of internal friction (Ф’) values for the highland area of Kundasang, Sabah by using kriging. A set of data from two adjacent site in Kundasang were collected from the site investigation report. There are three main stages in determining these parameters. The first stage is to use ordinary kriging methods to determine the modelling for these parameters. The second stage is to compare the results from ordinary kriging methods to simple kriging methods. The third stage is to produce the mapping for these parameters in the site, which could be used for slope stability and foundation design.
Pages 16-18
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Rock Slope Stability Assessment of Limestone Hills in Northern Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: GOH THIAN LAI , AINUL MARDHIYAH MOHD RAZIB,NUR AMANINA MAZLAN, ABDUL GHANI RAFEK, AILIE SOFYIANA SERASA, NORBERT SIMON, NORAINI SURIP, LEE KHAI ERN4AND TUAN RUSLI MOHAMED

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.22.26

The uniqueness of karsttopography in Kinta Valley lies with the spectacular shape of the steep-sided limestone towers. However, theinstability ofthese hillslopes may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to investigate the failure modes of 9 slopes in the vicinity ofnorthernKinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. There were two types of failure modes identified in the study area,which are planar and wedge failures. Planar failures were identified on slope GL3of Gunung Lang and slope GR3of Gunung Rapat with the dip direction and dip angle of 280⁰/79⁰ and 004⁰/ 64⁰ respectively. Two wedge failures were identified on slope QXL1of Qing Xing Ling, Taman Saikat with dip direction and dip angle of 252⁰/82⁰ and 302⁰/74⁰ respectively. A wedge failure was identified on slope GL3 for Gunung Lang, slope GR1, slope GR3 for Gunung Rapat and slope QXL2 for Qing Xing Ling,Taman Saikat. The dip direction and dip angle for the respective wedges failure were 345⁰/65⁰, 036⁰/ 49⁰, 006⁰/ 64⁰ and 025⁰/60⁰. No failure was identified on slope GL1, and slope GL2,forGunung Lang and slope GR2, and slope GR4forGunungRapat.
Pages 22-26
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah: Preliminary Interpretation

ABSTRACT

Smaller benthic foraminifera Analysis of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah:Preliminary Interpretation.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Junaidi Asis, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Ahmad Ridhwan Rahim, Zainey Konjing, Razali Che Kob, H.D. Tjia

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2017.27.29

Small benthic foraminifera have been fully extracted from the mudstone of Kudat Formation, Kudat, Sabah. The Kudat Formation comprise thick-bedded, quartzose to feldspathic, locally calcareous sandstone, an overall abundance of lignitic and carbonaceous layers, and the presence of red shales and detrital calcarenites. A total of 22 mudstone samples of Kudat Formation in difference localities have been collected for foraminifera analysis. All samples are processed according to standard micropaleontological method. Twenty-five species of small benthic foraminifera consisting of the agglutinated and hyaline group have identified. Almost all mudstone samples of Sikuati Member and Matunggong Member are consisting of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera assemblage indicative of bathyal to abyssal. K21 sample of Tajau member and K9 sample of Sikuati Member consist of deep-sea agglutinated foraminifera together with reworked calcareous foraminifera. Foraminifera analysis shows that the Kudat Formation sediment was deposited in deep marine setting ranging from bathyal to neritic..
Pages 27-29
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE HILLS, SOUTHERN KINTA VALLEY, IPOH, PERAK, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Goh Thian Lai, Ainul Mardhiyah Mohd Razib, Nur Amanina Mazlan, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Ailie Sofyiana Serasa, Norbert Simon, Noraini Surip, Lee Khai Ern and Tuan Rusli Mohamed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.05.09

The uniqueness of the karst topography of Kinta Valley is the result of the spectacular shaped steep-sided limestone towers. The instability of these hillslopes however, may affect the vulnerability of the surrounding area. This paper presents the results of slope stability assessment by using kinematic analysis to investigate the possible failure modes of 7 slopes in Gua Naga Mas (GNM1, GNM2 and GNM3), Gua Kandu (GK1, GK2 and GK3) and Gua Tempurung (GT) located in the southern part of the Kinta Valley, Ipoh, Perak. From the results of the slope stability assessment, it was determined that planar failure and wedge failure were the main failure modes. The GNM1 slope of Gua Naga Mas consist of four wedge failures and a planar failure with dip directions/dip angles of 005⁰/54⁰, 354⁰/59⁰, 124⁰/52⁰, 360⁰/50⁰ and 063⁰/70⁰ respectively. The GNM2 slope consists of a wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 021⁰/64⁰. Two wedge failures and a planar failure were identified on slope GNM3 with the respective dip directions/dip angles of 336⁰/49⁰, 301⁰/68⁰ and 270⁰/71⁰. The GK1 slope for Gua Kandu consists of wedge and planar failures with dip directions/dip angles of 231⁰/49⁰ and 217⁰/49⁰ respectively. The mode of failure at GK2 slope was identified as wedge failure with the dip direction/dip angle of 154⁰/44⁰. No mode of failure was identified on slope of GK3. Slope GT of Gua Tempurung was identified to have two wedge failures with dip directions/dip angles of 011⁰/49⁰ and 321⁰/48⁰ respectively..
Pages 05-06
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

ROCK SLOPES KINEMATIC ANALYSIS ALONG THE BUNDU TUHAN TO KUNDASANG HIGHWAY, SABAH, MALAYSIA.

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee , Norbert Simon

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2017.01.04

This study focused on the discontinuity survey and mode of rock slope failure along the Bundu Tuhan to Kundasang road, approximately 84th km to 96th km from Kota Kinabalu city, Sabah. The area is underlain by the Trusmadi Formation (Palaeocene to Eocene age), the Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) and the Pinousuk Gravels (Upper Pleistocene to Holocene age). These rock units show numerous lineaments with complex structural styles developed during several regional Tertiary tectonic activities. The tectonic complexities reduced the physical and engineering properties of the rock masses and produced intensive displacements and discontinuities among the strata, resulting in high degree of weathering process and instability. The weathered materials are unstable and may cause sliding and falling induced by high pore pressure subjected by both shallow and deep hydrodynamic processes. In this study, a total of ten (10) selected critical rock slopes failure was studied. Kinematics slope stability analyses indicates that the variable potential of circular, planar, wedge and toppling failures modes as well as the combination of more than one mode of aforementioned failure. The rock properties of ten (10) rock samples indicated that the point load strength index ranges from 0.33 MPa to 0.52 MPa (moderately week) and the uniaxial compressive strength range from 7.81 MPa to 12.57 MPa (moderately week). Development planning has to consider the hazard and environmental management program. This engineering geological study may play a vital role in rock slope stability assessment to ensure the public safety.
Pages 01-04
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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