Geological Behavior (GBR)

LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEWLY PROPOSED MIDDLE CRETACEOUS “BIBAI GROUP”, WESTERN SULAIMAN FOLD-THRUST BELT, PAKISTAN

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LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEWLY PROPOSED MIDDLE CRETACEOUS “BIBAI GROUP”, WESTERN SULAIMAN FOLD-THRUST BELT, PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEWLY PROPOSED MIDDLE CRETACEOUS “BIBAI GROUP”, WESTERN SULAIMAN FOLD-THRUST BELT, PAKISTAN

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Kifayat Ullah Shah, Akhtar Muhammad Kassi, Aimal Khan Kasi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2021.29.34

The newly proposed Middle Cretaceous “Bibai Group”, named after the Bibai peak, is exposed in Kach-Ziarat, Spera Ragha-Chingun areas of the Western Sulaiman Fold-Thrust Belt, Pakistan. It comprises thick succession of the mafic volcanic rocks, volcanic conglomerate, mudstone and sandstone. The stratigraphic nomenclature proposed by previous workers was not clear enough, as they used different names for the succession, such as “Kahan Conglomerate Member” of the Mughal Kot Formation, “Parh-related volcanics” by considering it as part of the “Parh Group, “Bibai Formation” and “Bela Volcanic Group”, which were confusing and misleading. Also previous workers did not realize that the succession may be further classified into distinct mappable lithostratigraphic units and deserved the status of a “Group”. Therefore, we carefully examined and mapped the area and hereby propose the name “Bibai Group” for the overall volcanic and volcaniclastic succession of the Middle Cretaceous age. Based on distinct lithostratigraphic characters we further subdivided the “Group” into two lithostratigraphic units of formation rank, for which we propose the names “Chinjun Volcanics” and “Bibai Formation”. Also based on distinct lithostratigraphic characters we further propose to subdivide our “Babai Formation” into three lithostratigraphic units of member rank, which we named as the “Kahan Conglomerate Member”, “Ahmadun Member” and “Kach Mudstone Member”. In this paper we have defined and briefly described the Bibai Group, its constituent formations and their members. Also we examined and discussed the validity and status of the proposed subdivisions; e.g. formations and members, of the Bibai Group, and are fully satisfied that the proposed subdivisions are appropriate and comply with the Article 24 and 25 of the North American Stratigraphic Codes (2005) and that the previous nomenclatures are inconsistent, confusing and do not comply with the International Stratigraphic Codes.
Pages 29-34
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5

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GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PROPOSED IFE DAM SITE AT KAJOLA VILLAGE, ILE-IFE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PROPOSED IFE DAM SITE AT KAJOLA VILLAGE, ILE-IFE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: O. Ajayi, K. A. Adekoya, O. P. Egwuatu and C. I. Konwea

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2021.23.28

Geological and geophysical investigations were conducted to assess the competence and structural integrity of the foundation site of the proposed Ife-dam at Kajola Village, Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Geological investigation along the two (2) proposed dam axes revealed that the overburden material is loose to dense with angular shearing resistance (ɸ) of 27o to 41o. The soils are predominantly elastic silts; cohesive with considerable strength and stability. Geophysical investigation involving the Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding delineated four (4) lithologies namely: topsoil with resistivity of 69 – 558 Ωm and thickness between 1.5 and 4.0 m; weathered sandy layer with resistivity from 123 – 586 Ωm and thickness between 6.5 and 20.4 m; partially weathered/ fractured basement with resistivity from 60 – 220 Ωm and thickness between 6.5 and 14.0 m; and the fresh basement rock with resistivity from 1337 – 10683 Ωm. There are indications of fractures at a depth of 32 m beneath Axis B extending to Axis A at a depth of 35 m. The subsurface materials are suitable to host a dam. Axis B is more appropriate for the dam axis, although the fracture zone should be factored into the design of the dam to prevent water seepage.
Pages 23-28
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5

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INTERPRETATION OF MAJOR STRUCTURES WITHIN THE BASEMENT REGION OF BENUE-NIGER CONFLUENCE FROM AEROMAGNETIC AND RADIOMETRIC DATA KOGI STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

INTERPRETATION OF MAJOR STRUCTURES WITHIN THE BASEMENT REGION OF BENUE-NIGER CONFLUENCE FROM AEROMAGNETIC AND RADIOMETRIC DATA KOGI STATE NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Fidelis I. Kwaghhua, Adetona Abbass A, Aliyu Shakirat B.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2021.17.22

Interpretation of Aeromagnetic and Radiometric Data covering the basement region of Benue-Niger confluence was executed to delineate major structures and other geologic frame works of mineral interest. The study area which hosts the Benue-Niger confluence also encloses two major geologic units which are basement complex and sedimentary basins. The Aeromagnetic data set comprising sheet 227 (Koton-Karfe), 247 (Lokoja) and 267 (Idah) was enhanced to reveal geologic structures while radiometric data was analysed to map lithology and zones affected by hydrothermal alterations. A set of mathematical algorithms was used to enhance the data for interpretation. First Vertical derivatives, Analytical Signal and Euler deconvolution filters were applied to the Aeromagnetic data while Ratio and Ternary images of the three radiogenic elements were obtained for the radiometric data. Magnetic signatures from the TMI showed a mixture of high and low susceptibility below koton-karfe due to intrusion of oolitic iron ore within the sedimentary formation. Lokoja regions recorded highest susceptibility of 165 nT due to magnetic signatures emanating from exposed basement rocks. The southern Idah regions recorded relatively low susceptibility. Result of First Vertical Derivative revealed near surface mineral potent structures labelled F1 – F8, cringing surface features B1, B2 and B3. Analytical signal revealed high amplitudes range of 0.174 to 0.579 cycles for magnetic sources majorly at the basement regions, while low amplitude range of 0.021 to 0.157 cycles were recorded around the sedimentary regions. Euler depth analysis revealed shallower depth to sources in the basement and deeper depth to sources in the sedimentary regions due to thick overburden. Radiometric signatures from the K/Th ratio map revealed portions around Latitude 8°00’ NW and 7°30’ SW shaded in pink colour and having values above known threshold of 0.2 %/ppm to be hydrothermally altered. Mapping of lithology from Ternary map revealed K-Feldspar mineral bearing rocks dominated the NW and SW regions, while sandstones, ironstones, mudstones, shale, alluvium and other fluvial sedimentary lithologies dominated the sedimentary North-east and South-Eastern regions. The western regions (NW and SW) hosted the major structures in form of magnetic lineaments trending NE-SW and E-W which also coincided with regions delineated to be hydrothermally altered and apparently represents the most prospective regions of mineralisation in the study area.
Pages 17-22
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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THE SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES IN KOCR FIELD IN THE NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, USING 3D SEISMIC TIMELAPSE DATA

ABSTRACT

THE SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES IN KOCR FIELD IN THE NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, USING 3D SEISMIC TIMELAPSE DATA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Igwenagu Chinyere L., Uko Etim D., Tamunobereton-Ari I., Amakiri Arobo R.C.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2021.07.12

The subsurface structures in KOCR Field, in the Coastal Swamp Niger Delta, Nigeria, are here presented, using seismic 3D timelapse. The KOCR Field lies on latitudes 4o50’58’’-4o55’19’’N and longitudes 6o18’41’’- 6o26’41’’E with aerial extent of 840km2. The base (1997) and the monitor (2009) seismic surveys resulted in a 4D response difference. The Base and Monitor data have a root-mean-square repeatability ratio (RRR) of 0.38 implying a very good repeatability when considering the acquisition, processing and environmental noises. Data processing and interpretation were carried out using Petrel software. The average thickness of the reservoir is about 69m at the depth of 3932m. Reservoir pressure decline rate of 0.062psi/day resulted in production decline rate of 1192.21bbl/day. Structural interpretation of seismic data reveals a highly-faulted field. Fault and horizon interpretation shows closures that are collapsed crestal structures. All the interpreted faults are normal synthetic and antithetic faults which are common in the Niger Delta basin. The lengths, dips and orientations of the faults and horizons, in the base and monitor stacks, are equal indicative of no faults reactivation that could have resulted from hydrocarbon production. The results of this work can be used in reservoir, field and environmental management in the area of study.
Pages 07-12
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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GROUND ROLL NOISE ATTENUATION IN 3D LAND SEISMIC DATA IN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GROUND ROLL NOISE ATTENUATION IN 3D LAND SEISMIC DATA IN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Bridget L. Lawrence, Etim D. Uko, Chibuogwu L. Eze, Chicozie Israel-Cookey, Iyeneomie Tamunobereton-ari, Nyaknno A. Umoren

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2021.04.06

Three-dimensional (3D) land seismic datasets were acquired from Central Depobelt in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria, with with the aim of attenuating ground roll noise from the dataset. The Omega (Schlumberger) software 2018 version was used along with frequency offset coherent noise suppression (FXCNS) and Anomalous Amplitude Attenuation (AAA) algorithms for ground roll attenuation. From the results obtained, Frequency Offset Coherent Noise Suppression (FXCNS) attenuates ground roll while AAA algorithm attenuates the residual high amplitude noise from the seismic data. Average frequency of the ground roll in the seismic data is 10.50Hz which falls within the actual range of ground roll frequency which is within the range of 3.00 – 18.00Hz. The average velocity of the ground roll in the seismic data is 477.36ms-1 while the velocity of ground roll ranges between 347.44 and 677.37ms-1. The wavelength of ground roll in the seismic data is 50.28m. The amplitude of the ground roll of -6.24dB is maximum at 4.2Hz. Frequency of signal ranges between 10.21 and 25.12Hz with an average of 17.67Hz. Signal amplitude of -8.32dB is maximum at 6.30Hz, while its wavelength is 57.12m. The results of this work can be used in the seismic source-receiver design for application in the area of study. Moreover, with ground roll noise attenuated, a better image of the subsurface geology is obtained hence reducing the risk of obtaining a wild cat drilling.
Pages 04-06
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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IMPACTS OF COVID-19 ON GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FIELDWORK: EXPLORATION OF NEW INITIATIVES AND DIMENSIONS

ABSTRACT

IMPACTS OF COVID-19 ON GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FIELDWORK: EXPLORATION OF NEW INITIATIVES AND DIMENSIONS

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Temitope D. Timothy Oyedotun

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2021.01.03

TThe novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has already changed the world in many respects, and its impact cuts across many fields of human endeavours. An area of temporary setbacks in geomorphological research posed by the pandemic is in the restriction placed on fieldwork exercise. Apart from bringing a lot of constraints to fieldwork, the need to meet the learning outcomes ensured that the already in-use technologies were easily adapted to simulate the necessary fieldwork in evaluating dynamics in geomorphological environment and the natural world. Despite the success, however, the fieldwork remains ‘signature pedagogy’ for geography, geomorphology and any other Earth Science disciplines. The dynamic nature of landforms, the serendipity of on-site field training and exercises, the ability to have a first-hand experience of field phenomenon, etc. are some of the expected rewards that could not be simulated remotely. Hence, when COVID-19 pandemic is over, the aspects of fieldwork should not be jettisoned for the simulated alternatives embraced in the pandemic. The two should work hand-in-hand for the diverse fields of geomorphological research.
Pages 01-03
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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IDENTIFICATION OF STAKEHOLDER IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GEOPARK CILETUH IN SUKABUMI, WEST JAVA INDONESIA

ABSTRACT

IDENTIFICATION OF STAKEHOLDER IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GEOPARK CILETUH IN SUKABUMI, WEST JAVA INDONESIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Santoso Tri Raharjo, Nurliana Cipta Apsari, Sahadi Humaedi, Meilanny Budiarti Santoso

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.89.92

Geopark is an innovation of protection for geological, biological and cultural diversity. Protection implementation need strong and active participation from many stakeholders such as government, private, media, academically and, most importantly is local communities. Collaborative and cooperation between stakeholders need to begin from the early of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The pentahelix model, a five-party partnership can be applied as a model in the protection and maintenance of Geopark-Ciletuh, South-Sukabumi of West Java. The aim of the study is to identify stakeholders that are involved in the management of Geopark Ciletuh in Sukabumi. The study focuses on the interaction between the stakeholders identified in the management of the Ciletuh Geopark. The research is using descriptive method with qualitative approach and the data are collected from primary and secondary sources. The informants were purposively determined, based on consideration and goals connected with the focus of the research. The informants in the research is various parties connected with the effort of mapping the stakeholders in local community within the area of Ciletuh Geopark of Southern Sukabumi. The result show that the five-party partnership model (pentahelix) can be expanded and explored according to the needs of interested community groups on Geopark Ciletuh protection. Efforts to protect Geopark Ciletuh by involving various parties need to be implemented in harmony so it is expected also to generate the socio-economic conditions of local communities. Increasing local knowledge of the importance of Geopark Ciletuh protection can be implemented by increasing the income of the people as the number of tourists’ increases.
Pages 89-92
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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IONOSPHERIC PLASMA VARIATIONS AFORE THE EAST OF KURIL ISLANDS EARTHQUAKE OF 13th JANUARY, 2007

ABSTRACT

IONOSPHERIC PLASMA VARIATIONS AFORE THE EAST OF KURIL ISLANDS EARTHQUAKE OF 13th JANUARY, 2007

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Thomas, J. E., George, N. J., Ekanem, A. M., Akpan, A. E.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.42.46

Plasma Analyzer (IAP) and Langmuir Probe (ISL) experiments of the DEMETER microsatellite were used to check the state of the ionosphere in the region of the M8.1 East of Kuril Islands earthquake of 13th January, 2007,30 days afore and 10 days after the event using statistical approach. The study strongly revealed that all three investigated ionospheric parameters of electron density, total ion density and electron temperature displayed unfamiliar ionospheric variations eight days before the earthquake in the daytime time half orbit measurement. To this, the electron density, total ion density and electron temperature recorded a variation of 4.09, 5.73 and -2.03 respectively. These irregularities were vetted for untrue signals using the geomagnetic indices of Kp and Dst. It was however realized that the state of the ionosphere was geomagnetically quiet during this day, hence the observed variations were seismogenic.
Pages 42-46
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS USING SEISMIC REFRACTION TECHNIQUE

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF ENGINEERING PROJECTS USING SEISMIC REFRACTION TECHNIQUE

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mfoniso U. Aka, Moses M. M. Ekpa, Doris O. Okoroh, Bethrand E. Oguama, Johnson C. Ibuot

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.84.88

Seismic refraction survey was conducted at Ibiono Ibom Local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, using 12 channels ES 3000S enhancement seismograph. This was done to evaluate and obtained information on depth and thickness of the shallow subsurface and characterized the bearing and engineering parameters on the bases of soil and rock competencies for stability of engineering works. The travel times of refracted waves measured were used to calculate P and S wave velocities employed in the evaluation of bearing strength and engineering parameters. The results revealed that seismic waves penetrated into three layers. The values of depth and thickness for upper layer ranged from 0.0 m to 4.5 m and 4.5 m, middle layer ranged from 5.0 m to 12.5 m and 7.5, lower layer ranged from 15.0 m to 25.2 m and 10.2 m. The bearing capacity parameters calculated were allowable bearing capacity and ultimate bearing capacity, engineering parameters: Concentration Index, Stress Ratio, Material Index and Density Gradient. The third layer reflected good competent soil and rock quality in the southeastern part of the study area, and was delineated as a better layer for engineering stability.
Pages 84-88
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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INVESTIGATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES WITHIN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, VIA AEROMAGNETIC DATA

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES WITHIN PARTS OF NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, VIA AEROMAGNETIC DATA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ekpa, Moses M. M., Ibuot, Johnson C., Okeke, Francisca N. and Obiora, Daniel N.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.78.83

Geophysical study involving aeromagnetic method was carried out to investigate parts of Niger Delta in Nigeria, aimed at investigating the cause and nature of anomalous bodies within the study area. Spectral analysis technique was employed in quantitative interpretation to determine depth/thickness of the sedimentary basin, basement topography, structural trends, curie point depth, thermal gradient and heat flow in the area. The total magnetic intensity (TMI) anomalies had values of between -53.7nT and 119.5nT while the residual magnetic intensity ranged from -52.5 to 58.0nT. The spectral analysis revealed the depth to magnetic sources varying from 2.5 to 5.5km while the shallow magnetic sources varied from 0.89 to 1.47km. The geothermal analysis revealed the curie point depth between 11.782 and 18.048km while the calculated geothermal gradient ranged lie between 32.137 and 49.231o𝐶𝑘𝑚−1. The heat flow values ranged from 80.343 to 123.080𝑚𝑊𝑚−2. The results from this study have thrown more light to the understanding of the variation of subsurface structures in the study area. These will enhance the development of the resources and will be of economic benefit to the country if well harnessed. However, possible future research work on this active area is proposed for more robust results.
Pages 78-83
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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