Geological Behavior (GBR)

RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES IN ERUEMUKOHWARIEN AREA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA

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RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES IN ERUEMUKOHWARIEN AREA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT OF OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES IN ERUEMUKOHWARIEN AREA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Mohammed S. Chaanda, Agbalagba Ezekiel, Felix Igede

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2020.35.41

The study was carried out in-situ using a Radalert 100 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS). Five facilities were investigated at the rig site which included the rig site host community as well as the camp site for the oil workers at Ekapkamreh town. Ten 10 sampling locations were evaluated at a total of 60 study points. The values obtained range between 0.115±0.018 (µSv/hr) and 0.299±0.040 (µSv/hr) for the rig site environment, 0.111±0.006 (µSv/hr) and 0.337±0.031 (µSv/hr) for field logistic base (offices and workshops), 0.114±0.011 (µSv/hr) and 0.312±0.021 (µSv/hr) for components of the mud circulation section. Also, the radiological concentration of the Chemical Store ranged between 0.126±0.019 (µSv/hr) and 1.181±0.104 (µSv/hr), while the radiological values obtained from other facilities within the rig site ranged from 0.155±0.026 (µSv/hr) and 0.249±0.026 (µSv/hr). Radiation readings obtained for soil ranged from 0.149±0.05 (µSv/hr) to 0.219±0.025 (µSv/hr) and 0.114±0.039 (µSv/hr) to 0.219±0.051 (µSv/hr) respectively at the host community and camp site. Most of the results obtained showed that the general environment of the rig site is slightly above the permissible absorbed dose rate threshold of 0.15(µSv/hr) recommended by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) in 2009. However, the exposure rates exceed the standard background level of 13µR/hr (coequal to 0.13µSv/hr). There is high tendency for the industry workers to be exposed to radiation with time.
Pages 35-41
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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SWELLING CLAY MINERALS AND SLOPE CUT FAILURES IN THE GARINONO FORMATION ALONG JALAN SUNGAI HITAM, LIBARAN, SANDAKAN

ABSTRACT

SWELLING CLAY MINERALS AND SLOPE CUT FAILURES IN THE GARINONO FORMATION ALONG JALAN SUNGAI HITAM, LIBARAN, SANDAKAN

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: John Kuna Raj

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.29.34

Jalan Sungai Hitam in the Sandakan Peninsula traverses a flat to gently undulating terrain of low hills and ridges surrounded by broad alluvial flats. Recent slope cuts expose bluish to dark grey mudstones of the Garinono Formation containing pebble to boulder sized, angular to rounded, blocks of sandstone and other rock types. Slump-mud flows have occurred at most of the slope cuts; the failed materials characterized by desiccation cracks and fissures. Soil index properties, including consistency limits and grain size analyses, indicate that the mudstones have a medium to high swell potential. X-ray diffraction analyses show the clay minerals present to be kaolinite, illite and randomly interstratified illite-montmorillonite (a swelling clay mineral). The mudstones are thus sensitive to atmospheric wet-dry cycles with repeated swelling and shrinkage giving rise to the desiccation cracks and fissures, The cracks and fissures reduce the shear strength of the mudstones and allow for the infiltration of rainwater which initiates the slump-mud flows. It is concluded that earthworks in areas of the Garinono Formation in eastern Sabah need to consider the presence of swelling clay minerals; an occurrence that can be inferred from evaluating soil index properties.
Pages 29-34
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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THE STREAM-LENGTH GRADIENT INDEX AND THE CORRESPONDING LANDFORM STRUCTURES OVER THE KIULU RIVER, NORTHWEST SABAH

ABSTRACT

THE STREAM-LENGTH GRADIENT INDEX AND THE CORRESPONDING LANDFORM STRUCTURES OVER THE KIULU RIVER, NORTHWEST SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Chung Wei Kiat, Felix Tongkul

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.26.28

In this paper, we explored the relationship between the stream-length gradient index over the Kiulu River upstream and its respective landform. The knickpoints derived from stream-length gradient index detected sudden drop in elevation that may be associated with recent tectonic activity over NW Sabah. To illustrate the changes in the stream profile, two knickpoints, F1 which coincided with historical earthquakes, and F2 which showed peak anomaly are selected. The landform over knickpoint F1 showed river diversions whereas the landform over knickpoint F2 showed deep ponding. Both field sites, however showed consistent alternation between rapids and ponding forming a step-like landform where the inferred normal fault is oriented at N40E. The stretched landform over the Kiulu river sites supports an extension setting that may be associated with gravity-sliding tectonics over NW Sabah.
Pages 26-28
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIDUAL SOIL ON SLIDING AREA AT BUNDU TUHAN, SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIDUAL SOIL ON SLIDING AREA AT BUNDU TUHAN, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.18.25

The study of the earth mass movement has long been regarded as one of the most important and interesting aspect of engineering geology and geotechnical engineering, which the designers and planners from the private and public sectors address when implementing the initial stage of urban and rural development projects. This involves highways and infrastructures construction and land use planning among the others. Failure to appreciate the problems relating to mass movements of earth material could lead to damage of man made structures and even the loss of lives. These studies focused on the mass movement in Bundu Tuhan to Kundasang highway area approximately 84 km to 96 km from Kota Kinabalu city, Sabah, one of the most vulnerable to mass movements occurrence in west coast of Sabah. It is bounded by longitude line E 116o 31.592’ to E 116o 36.183’ and latitude line N 06o 00.269’ to N 05o 57.610’. The main objectives of this study are; 1) to map and locate the landslides in the study area; and 2) to study the mechanism and the influence of geological factors causing the mass movement. Geology of the study area and its surrounding is hosted mainly by three sedimentary rock formations: Trusmadi Formation (Palaeocene to Eocene age), Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) and Pinousuk Gravel (Upper Pleistocene to Holocene age). These three geologic formations dissected by numerous geological lineaments structural produced by a complex tectonic history of multi phase folding and thrust, normal and reverse faulting. These tectonic setting reduce the physical and mechanical properties of the soil and produced intensive displacement in substrata resulting in intensive high degree of weathering processes. The weathered materials are weak and cause sinking, subsidence and sliding due to high pore pressure subjected by both shallow and deep groundwater. Evaluation 10 boreholes data in study area indicated that the groundwater table in study area is shallow and range 1.9 meter to about 11.3 meters. The groundwater in study area fluctuate drastically even within short period. Sand and gravel layer with variable thickness defined the major shallow aquifers within the top weathered materials while the highly fracture sedimentary rocks defined the major deep aquifers. Most of the aquifer within top unconsolidated weathered material is under unconfined condition. Most of significant aquifers within the sedimentary rocks are sandstones. The sandstones generally fracture and contain coarse sediments, which increase the permeability. Geologic and geotechnic evaluation of the study area indicates that the mass movement take place when slope materials are no longer able to resist the force of gravity. These decrease the shear resistance resulting mass movement, which is due to internal and external factors. Internal factors involve some change in either physical or chemical properties of the rock and soil. External factors involve increase of shear stress on slope, which usually involves a form of disturbance that is induced by man. The triggering mechanism in the study area most likely involves heavy rainfall causing water saturation of the slope material and loss of cohesion along rapture planes. The sheared shale, bedding and fault planes, and opening fractures are all structural weaknesses, which acting as pathways for water seepage, hastening the weakening and eventual mass movement in the study area. Development planning has to consider these hazards in order to counter their effect. An environmental management program should be implemented to prevent these losses. Geological and geotechnical studies will play a vital role in ground stability assessment that critical in public safety.
Pages 18-25
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT USING MODIFIED D-SLOPE METHOD OF WESTERN PART OF SANDAKAN, SABAH

ABSTRACT

SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT USING MODIFIED D-SLOPE METHOD OF WESTERN PART OF SANDAKAN, SABAH

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Hennie Fitria Wulandary Soehady Erfen, Amirul Adlie bin Mohd Rosli

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.13.17

Slope stability assessment using modified D-Slope method is been conducted on five (5) rock slopes from Sandakan, Sabah. D-slope method comprises of G-Rating determination and Potential Instability. G-Rating includes 17 parameters of field observation and laboratory analysis to assess the slope condition. Kinematic analysis is used for Potential Instability analysis to determine the type of failures for each slope. This later is to determine the level of slope’s risk: No Risk, Low Risk, Moderate Risk or High Risk. Based on the results of G-Rating, only slope C1 and C2 have value more than 0.4 while other slopes have less than 0.4 which indicates stable slopes. Based on kinematic analysis, slope C1 and C3 experienced wedge failures, slope C4 with toppling failure, slope C5 with wedge/planar failures and no failure shown for slope C2. D-slope analysis indicates that slope C1 is considered as Low Risk with mitigation suggestions of stream system inspection and vegetation on exposed area of the slopes, while other slopes (C2, C3, C4 and C5) have no suggestion for mitigation as been assessed as No Risk.
Pages 13-17
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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FRICTION ANGLE OF POLISHED SURFACES OF SANDSTONE AND CONGLOMERATE FROM THE SEMANGGOL FORMATION, BERIS DAM, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

ABSTRACT

FRICTION ANGLE OF POLISHED SURFACES OF SANDSTONE AND CONGLOMERATE FROM THE SEMANGGOL FORMATION, BERIS DAM, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: J. K. Raj

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.09.12

The Beris Dam is founded on a sequence of thick bedded to massive conglomerate and gritstone with some sandstone and mudstone, mapped as the Semanggol Formation of Triassic age. Portable shear box tests on polished surfaces of a sandstone, and a conglomerate, core yield friction angles of 18.0o and 20.8o, respectively. These friction angles are comparable with residual friction angles of between 17.5o and 19.0o determined in field and laboratory tests on sheared mudstone surfaces of the Semanggol Formation at the Muda Dam. Apparent cohesion values determined in the portable shear box tests result from the restricted normal displacement test conditions and should not be considered in shear strength calculations.
Pages 09-12
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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PETROLEUM SYSTEM OF SHOUSHAN BASIN, WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

ABSTRACT

PETROLEUM SYSTEM OF SHOUSHAN BASIN, WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Jong E Cheng

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.01.2020.01.08

The Western Desert is located in Egypt and it consists of a few extensional coastal rift-basins. It started as rifts and was formed during the Jurassic time in association with the opening of the Tethys Sea. There were three major tectonic events that occurred in Western Desert within Jurassic to Eocene time and resulted in NE-SW trend and NW-SE trend normal fault, and inversion of Western Desert basin due to rifting of Neo-Tethys followed by South America & Africa Atlantic rifting and Transpressional Syrian Arc event which had contributed to the formation of hydrocarbon trap. The generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbon started in the Late Cretaceous (95–90 Ma) and it continues to the present time. There is proven petroleum system named as Khatatba-Khatatba petroleum system within the Western Desert. The source of hydrocarbons is the Middle Jurassic Khatatba organicz-rich shales which contains type II- III and type III kerogen source migrated into Khatatba sandstones reservoir rock. Khatatba sandstones are mostly quartz arenite, which composed mainly of more than 95 % quartz. These sandstones have high porosity and high permeability with well sorted and are mostly subangular to subrounded grains. Masajid carbonate acts as regional seal within the basin. Hence, the Western Desert of Egypt has a significant hydrocarbon potential for exploration or development targeting on inversion structure.
Pages 01-08
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IN GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING BASED ON OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

ABSTRACT

PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IN GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING BASED ON OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Magdalena Antosiewicsz

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2019.25.28

As a widely applied method in many fields, parametric design is now finally exerting influences on architectural industry with the rapid development of Internet technology. For this reason, parametric architectural design is studied in this research based on optimization method. First, parametric design and optimization algorithm are introduced; then, the process of modeling and optimization procedures is discussed; at last, the parametric optimization design is applied to solve the complex architectural design problems. Parametric method will thoroughly affect architectural industry. Therefore, architectural designs should be based on optimization algorithm using parametric design to improve the progress and quality of architectural design.
Pages 25-28
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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RESEARCH AND EVALUATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON HIGHWAY ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON HIGHWAY ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPE

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Ying Xiang, Wei Li, Haibing Fan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2019.20.24

With the rapid development of traffic, highway users’ demand for highway is no longer just a passageway between two points, but an important landscape element in the highway environment. Based on the analysis of the relevant research at home and abroad, the GIS technology is used to identify the ecological information in the road area, the spatial superposition analysis of the remote sensing image in the road area and the GIS is studied, the remote sensing image before and after the highway construction is compared, the influence of the highway landscape is studied, and the geographical information system is studied and evaluated. It improves the rationality and accuracy of ecological information extraction, classification and analysis, and provides strong technical support and methods for objective, comprehensive and accurate analysis of ecological changes before and after highway construction.
Pages 20-24
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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EBM – BASED INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF MARINE ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION

ABSTRACT

EBM – BASED INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF MARINE ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION

Journal: Geological Behavior (GBR)
Author: Sining Zheng

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gbr.02.2019.15.19

The ecosystem-based coastal zone management (EBCZM) is an innovative integrated management concept that can meet the above practical needs. First of all need to start from the practice of China’s coastal zone management, illustrates the management (EBM) based on ecosystem level the concept, connotation, development, principles, etc., and puts forward based on extended ecosystem level of Marine management (EBMM) and based on the ecological system of coastal zone management (EBCZM) concept, and from the jiaozhou bay coastal zone ecosystem, the root cause of ecological risk, and the main indicators of closely related to human activities, preliminary established the “based on index system of coastal zone management level of jiaozhou bay ecosystem”.
Pages 15-19
Year 2019
Issue 2
Volume 3

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